miércoles, 6 de octubre de 2021

Documentos del Colegio de Postgraduados, indizados en el Science Citation Index Expanded y Social Sciences Citation Index del Web de la Ciencia (Julio-Septiembre de 2021)


Los artículos que aparecen sin fecha son aquellas que todavía no se les asigna, ya que son consideradas Early Access, y se les asignará volumen, número y fecha cuando el editor lo considere necesario. En el caso de las revistas que han adoptado el esquema de publicación continua, no aparecerá volumen, número y paginación, solo la fecha y un número consecutivo asignado por el editor y su DOI correspondiente.



ACEVEDO-ALCALA, A, RODRIGUEZ-LEYVA, E and LOMELI-FLORES, JR, 2021. Impact of Host Size and Honey Availability on Trichogramma atopovirilia (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Longevity. JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE. July 2021. Vol. 56, no. 3, p. 458–461.



AMECA-VENEROSO, C, SANCHEZ-ARELLANO, L, RAMON-CANUL, LG, HERRERA-CORREDOR, JA, CUERVO-OSORIO, VD, QUETZ-AGUIRRE, EM, RODRIGUEZ-MIRANDA, J, CABAL-PRIETO, A and RAMIREZ-RIVERA, ED, [no date]. A modified version of the sensory Pivot technique as a possible tool for the analysis of food adulteration: A case of coffee. JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES. DOI 10.1111/joss.12705.

The objective of this study was to validate the Pivot sensory technique for sensory analysis of adulterated coffees. The Pivot technique was modified (instructions and determination of the values of the unadulterated sample considered Pivot). A total of 130 consumers evaluated five pairs of samples (Pivot vs. five coffee samples adulterated with black bean coffee). A sensory vocabulary was generated for the construction of confidence ellipses and the calculation of sample classification percentage between the Pivot sample and the adulterated samples. A total of 52 sensory attributes were generated (28 aromas, 5 basic tastes, and 19 flavors). As adulteration increased, a decrease in the number of aromas, high discrimination, and a classification percentage of 68% between the Pivot sample and the adulterated samples. The Pivot technique can be a tool to study the effect of adulteration in coffees. Practical Applications The use of the modified Pivot technique in combination with the determination of the values of the Pivot (unadulterated sample) sample can be very useful for the identification of the sensory effect caused by the adulteration of different foods, including those that are protected by some quality seal for quality or for quality control. The scope of this research may be of interest to the industry, producers, and academia.


BAEZ-AGUILAR, AM, ARAMBULA-VILLA, G, PRINYAWIWATKUL, W, LOPEZ-ESPINDOLA, M, RAMIREZ-RIVERA, EJ, CONTRERAS-OLIVA, A and HERRERA-CORREDOR, JA, [no date]. Effect of calcium hydroxide mixed with preservatives on physicochemical characteristics and sensory shelf-life of corn tortilla. JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.11399.

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and shelf-life of corn tortilla stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) using a(w) modifiers (propylene glycol and glycerol) and pH modifiers (fumaric acid and sodium benzoate) as preservatives combined with calcium hydroxide. Detection thresholds were used to determine the maximum preservative concentration and calcium hydroxide. Physicochemical characterization and sensory evaluation were used to determine the stability and sensory shelf-life of tortillas. RESULTS: Control, calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide + fumaric acid, calcium hydroxide + glycerol, calcium hydroxide + propylene glycol, and calcium hydroxide + sodium benzoate treatments had rounded half-lives of 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, and 2 days respectively. Glycerol combined with calcium hydroxide resulted in tortillas with lower pH variations over time. Mold presence was the critical attribute causing tortilla rejection. CONCLUSION: The use of a(w) modifiers had a better effect in preserving corn tortilla, as the concentration of pH modifiers at detection threshold levels was not able to reach an optimum performance when combined with calcium hydroxide. (C) 2021 Society of Chemical Industry


BARRAZA-GUERRERO, SI, MEZA-HERRERA, CA, GARCIA-DE LA PENA, C, AVILA-RODRIGUEZ, V, VACA-PANIAGUA, F, DIAZ-VELASQUEZ, CE, PACHECO-TORRES, I, VALDEZ-SOLANA, MA, SILLER-RODRIGUEZ, QK, VALENZUELA-NUNEZ, LM and HERRERA-SALAZAR, JC, 2021. Unveiling the Fecal Microbiota in Two Captive Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Populations Receiving Different Type of Diets. BIOLOGY-BASEL. July 2021. Vol. 10, no. 7. DOI 10.3390/biology10070637.

Simple Summary The Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is an endangered canine. Both Mexico and the United States are currently collaborating to reproduce and reintroduce individuals to their original habitats. However, keeping these wolves in captivity represents a great commitment to meet their basic needs. Diet is a determining factor that is closely related to health and reproductive fitness. The type of diet that is fed to canines in captivity must provide the required nutrients for their development and welfare. The study of the fecal microbiota is a non-invasive way to establish the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities to determine if they are in a healthy condition. We analyzed data from two captive populations of Mexican wolves (i.e., northern and central Mexico) receiving different type of diets (Michilia population: mainly kibble vs. Ocotal population: mainly raw meat). The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Michilia resulted in 204 genera and 316 species, while in Ocotal there were 232 genera and 379 species. In the Michilia, dominance of bacteria that degrade carbohydrates was observed (related to kibble diet). In contrast, the Ocotal microbiota was dominated by protein-degrading bacteria (related to raw meat diet). The main outcomes generated in this study should help to enhance the welfare of the captive Mexican wolves to increase its numbers. The Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was once distributed in southern United States and northern Mexico. It is an endangered subspecies detached from the gray wolf, and likely exemplifies one of the original migration waves of C. lupus into the new world. This is a canine whose individuals survive in specialized facilities, zoos, and museums as part of captive-breeding programs. In order to contribute to the improvement of the management of this species and favor its long-term conservation in Mexico, we aimed to evaluate the diversity and abundance of the fecal bacterial microbiota in two populations exposed to different types of diet: (1) Michilia (23 degrees N, 104 degrees W); kibble daily and raw meat sporadically, and (2) Ocotal (19 degrees N, 99 degrees W); raw meat daily and live animals periodically. Next generation sequencing (V3-V4 16S rRNA gene) by Illumina was implemented. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Michilia resulted in 9 phyla, 19 classes, 34 orders, 61 families, 204 genera, and 316 species, while in Ocotal there were 12 phyla, 24 classes, 37 orders, 69 families, 232 genera, and 379 species. Higher estimated Chao1 richness, Shannon diversity, and core microbiota were observed in Ocotal. Differences (p < 0.05) between populations occurred according to the Bray-Curtis beta diversity index. In the Michilia, dominance of bacteria that degrade carbohydrates (Firmicutes, Lachnospiraceae, Blautia, Clostrodium, Eisenbergiella, Romboutsia, and Ruminococcus) was observed; they are abundant in kibble diets. In contrast, the Ocotal microbiota was dominated by protein-degrading bacteria (Fusobacteria, Fusobacteriaceae, and Fusobacteria), indicating a possible positive relation with a raw meat diet. The information generated in this study is fundamental to support the implementation of better management plans in the two populations considered here, as well as in different facilities of southern United States and Mexico, where this subspecies is kept in captivity for conservation purposes.


BRINGAS-GONZALEZ, V, CONTRERAS-OLIVA, A, LOPEZ-ESPIIDOLA, M, BELLO-PEREZ, LA and HERRERA-CORREDOR, JA, [no date]. Familiarity, attitudes and behaviours as key factors to explore plantain and amaranth flours as potential ingredients for sandwich bread. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. DOI 10.1111/ijfs.15284.

The objective was to identify the familiarity, attitudes and behaviours of consumers regarding amaranth and plantain-based foods focusing on sandwich bread (SB). A total of 221 responses from Mexican consumers were collected using a questionnaire implemented in Google (R) Forms. Results showed that consumers were more familiar with foods based on amaranth (95%) than plantain (36%). A significant relationship (P < 0.05) of gender and familiarity with health implications of SB consumption was found. Women were aware of health implications, whereas men were not. Age had an important relationship with the emotions elicited from the consumption of SB. Younger participants indicated that they feel calm and older participants guilty. Age and gender are potential factors to guide the development of the SB formulation as a viable proposal to diversify products based on plantain and amaranth flours.


CARRILLO-GONZALEZ, R, GARCIA, BGG, GONZALEZ-CHAVEZ, MDA and DOMINGUEZ, FAS, [no date]. Trace Elements Adsorption from Solutions and Acid Mine Drainage Using Agricultural By-products. SOIL & SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION. DOI 10.1080/15320383.2021.1942430.

To mitigate the trace elements (TE) dispersion in acid mine drainage (AMD), laboratory experiments were carried out comparing nine agricultural by-products. Five adsorbent materials were selected for adsorption batch experiments. Then, the biosorbents were tested to remove TE from AMD collected from oxidized tailings heaps, using equilibrium experiments. The As adsorption on carbonatite was high (15.4 g kg(-1)); Cd (4.1 g kg(-1)) on cow manure; Cu (17.9 g kg(-1)) on carbonatite; Pb (14.1 g kg(-1)), and Zn (16.4 g kg(-1)) on rabbit manure. The Zn adsorption on oat straw and carbonatite was well fit by Freundlich isotherm. The Langmuir equation mimics well Zn and Cd adsorption by peat moss and caw manure; Cu adsorption on peat moss and vermicompost. Except for vermicompost and carbonatite, the adsorption improved as the buffer capacity of the biosorbents increased, following a second-order equation. The FTIR analysis showed that the carboxylic, aromatic, and aliphatic aldehyde groups were involved in TE adsorption. Soluble-As, -Cd, -Cu, and -Zn from AMD were removed (90%) by the addition of 4 and 8% (m/v) of sheep manure, cow manure, rabbit manure, vermicompost, and carbonatite. Lead concentration in AMD was increased due to the addition of the biosorbents.


CRESPO-HERRERA, L, HOWARD, R, PIEPHO, HP, PEREZ-RODRIGUEZ, P, MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, O, BURGUENO, J, SINGH, R, MONDAL, S, JARQUIN, D and CROSSA, J, [no date]. Genome-enabled prediction for sparse testing in multi-environmental wheat trials. PLANT GENOME. DOI 10.1002/tpg2.20151.

Sparse testing in genome-enabled prediction in plant breeding can be emulated throughout different line allocations where some lines are observed in all environments (overlap) and others are observed in only one environment (nonoverlap). We studied three general cases of the composition of the sparse testing allocation design for genome-enabled prediction of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding: (a) completely nonoverlapping wheat lines in environments, (b) completely overlapping wheat lines in all environments, and (c) a proportion of nonoverlapping/overlapping wheat lines allocated in the environments. We also studied several cases in which the size of the testing population was systematically decreased. The study used three extensive wheat data sets (W1, W2, and W3). Three different genome-enabled prediction models (M1-M3) were used to study the effect of the sparse testing in terms of the genomic prediction accuracy. Model M1 included only main effects of environments and lines; M2 included main effects of environments, lines, and genomic effects; whereas the remaining model (M3) also incorporated the genomic x environment interaction (GE). The results show that the GE component of the genome-based model M3 captures a larger genetic variability than the main genomic effects term from models M1 and M2. In addition, model M3 provides higher prediction accuracy than models M1 and M2 for the same allocation designs (different combinations of nonoverlapping/overlapping lines in environments and training set sizes). Overlapped sets of 30-50 lines in all the environments provided stable genomic-enabled prediction accuracy. Reducing the size of the testing populations under all allocation designs decreases the prediction accuracy, which recovers when more lines are tested in all environments. Model M3 offers the possibility of maintaining the prediction accuracy throughout both extreme situations of all nonoverlapping lines and all overlapping lines.


CUATLAYOTL-COTTIER, R, HUERTA-DE LA PENA, A, PENA-CHORA, G and SALAZAR-MAGALLON, JA, [no date]. Insecticidal activity of industrial by-products fermented by Bacillus thuringiensis strain GP139 against Mites (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea). BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. DOI 10.1080/09583157.2021.1961686.

Aphids and mites are important agricultural pests. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis have been used as biological insecticides. Micro-immersion and spray bioassays were applied with supernatant of fermented cheese whey and maize cooking water free of cells against third and fourth instar aphids Melanaphis sacchari, Rhophalosiphum maidis, Aphis fabae, and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. With the micro-immersion technique used in the laboratory, we observed mortalities between 50% and 80%, while the spraying technique used for greenhouse bioassays the mortalities observed were between 60% and 90%. To conclude, the use of supernatants from fermented industrial by-products could be utilised like biological insecticides.


FONSECA, JMO, KLEIN, PE, CROSSA, J, PACHECO, A, PEREZ-RODRIGUEZ, P, RAMASAMY, P, KLEIN, R and ROONEY, WL, [no date]. Assessing combining abilities, genomic data, and genotype x environment interactions to predict hybrid grain sorghum performance. PLANT GENOME. DOI 10.1002/tpg2.20127.

Genomic selection in maize (Zea mays L.) has been one factor that has increased the rate of genetic gain when compared with other cereals. However, the technological foundations in maize also exist in other cereal crops that would allow prediction of hybrid performance based on general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities applied through genomic-enabled prediction models. Further, the incorporation of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction effects present an opportunity to deploy hybrids to targeted environments. To test these concepts, a factorial mating design of elite yet divergent grain sorghum lines generated hybrids for evaluation. Inbred parents were genotyped, and markers were used to assess population structure and develop the genomic relationship matrix (GRM). Grain yield, height, and days to anthesis were collected for hybrids in replicated trials, and best linear unbiased estimates were used to train classical GCA-SCA-based and genomic (GB) models under a hierarchical Bayesian framework. To incorporate population structure, GB was fitted using the GRM of both parents and hybrids. For GB models, G x E interaction effects were included by the Hadamard product between GRM and environments. A leave-one-out cross-validation scheme was used to study the prediction capacity of models. Classical and genomic models effectively predicted hybrid performance and prediction accuracy increased by including genomic data. Genomic models effectively partitioned the variation due to GCA, SCA, and their interaction with the environment. A strategy to implement genomic selection for hybrid sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding is presented herein.


 FRITSCHE-NETO, R, GALLI, G, BORGES, KLR, COSTA-NETO, G, ALVES, FC, SABADIN, F, LYRA, DH, MORAIS, PPP, DE ANDRADE, LRB, GRANATO, I and CROSSA, J, 2021. Optimizing Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Small-Scale Maize Hybrid Breeding Programs: A Roadmap Review. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. 1 July 2021. Vol. 12. DOI 10.3389/fpls.2021.658267.

The usefulness of genomic prediction (GP) for many animal and plant breeding programs has been highlighted for many studies in the last 20 years. In maize breeding programs, mostly dedicated to delivering more highly adapted and productive hybrids, this approach has been proved successful for both large- and small-scale breeding programs worldwide. Here, we present some of the strategies developed to improve the accuracy of GP in tropical maize, focusing on its use under low budget and small-scale conditions achieved for most of the hybrid breeding programs in developing countries. We highlight the most important outcomes obtained by the University of Sao Paulo (USP, Brazil) and how they can improve the accuracy of prediction in tropical maize hybrids. Our roadmap starts with the efforts for germplasm characterization, moving on to the practices for mating design, and the selection of the genotypes that are used to compose the training population in field phenotyping trials. Factors including population structure and the importance of non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis) controlling the desired trait are also outlined. Finally, we explain how the source of the molecular markers, environmental, and the modeling of genotype-environment interaction can affect the accuracy of GP. Results of 7 years of research in a public maize hybrid breeding program under tropical conditions are discussed, and with the great advances that have been made, we find that what is yet to come is exciting. The use of open-source software for the quality control of molecular markers, implementing GP, and envirotyping pipelines may reduce costs in an efficient computational manner. We conclude that exploring new models/tools using high-throughput phenotyping data along with large-scale envirotyping may bring more resolution and realism when predicting genotype performances. Despite the initial costs, mostly for genotyping, the GP platforms in combination with these other data sources can be a cost-effective approach for predicting the performance of maize hybrids for a large set of growing conditions.


GORDILLO-SALINAS, VM, FLORES-MAGDALEN, H, ORTIZ-SOLORIO, CA and ARTEAGA-RAMIREZ, R, 2021. Evaluation of nitrogen status in a wheat crop using unmanned aerial vehicle images. CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. July 2021. Vol. 81, no. 3, p. 408–419. DOI 10.4067/S0718-58392021000300408.

The excessive use of N in agriculture has created various environmental and economic problems. Remote sensing and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are feasible solutions to infer the status of a crop and enable a better management during the growing season. The objective of this study was to correlate experimental N content and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop aboveground biomass data with vegetation indices estimated using UAV images. In this study, the N nutrition index and N dilution curve were used as indicators of the state of plant N; input variables to estimate these indicators were the N content and aboveground biomass. Four flight campaigns were conducted at different phenological stages of a wheat crop and seven N doses were evaluated. A linear relationship of blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) and green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) with aboveground biomass and N content was identified. BNDVI and biomass demonstrated high R-2 during boots swollen and end of anthesis growth stages (0.62 and 0.68, respectively), while GNDVI showed the highest R-2 during the ear half emerged and beginning of anthesis growth stages (0.84 and 0.79, respectively). For N content estimation, GNDVI showed a higher correlation than BNDVI, and the adjustment curve showed an R-2 up to 0.81 only for the last flight (end of anthesis), BNDVI showed an R-2 of 0.78. Remote sensing and vegetation indices estimated from UAV images can be reliably used to estimate N content and wheat biomass, contributing to knowing the crop N status.


HAASE, DL, BOUZZA, K, EMERTON, L, FRIDAY, JB, LIEBERG, B, ALDRETE, A and DAVIS, AS, 2021. The High Cost of the Low-Cost Polybag System: A Review of Nursery Seedling Production Systems. LAND. August 2021. Vol. 10, no. 8. DOI 10.3390/land10080826.

An important strategy for meeting global landscape restoration goals is nursery production of high-quality seedlings. Growing seedlings with attributes that promote post-planting survival and growth can be dramatically influenced by the nursery container system. In many countries, nurseries produce seedlings in polybags filled with excavated soil. These seedlings often develop deformed roots with limited fibrosity which can lead to poor survival and growth after outplanting. Polybags are initially inexpensive but using these single-use plastic containers accrues expenses that are often untracked. Comparisons among nursery production systems must account for factors such as container longevity, labor efficiency, and seedling field performance. A more holistic approach to account for environmental, economic, social, logistic, and cultural elements in the cost-benefit equation that influences nursery production systems is needed. Converting to a modern container system requires concomitant adjustments in nursery scheduling and culturing matched to the new stock type. Doing so provides an opportunity to align nursery production techniques and resulting seedling attributes with anticipated field conditions. This article describes and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nursery production systems and provides recommendations and case studies to aid nurseries in improving seedling quality toward meeting restoration goals in a cost-effective and timely manner.


HERNANDEZ-MAXIMO, E, VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, JJ, LOPEZ-UPTON, J and SANCHEZ-MONSALVO, V, [no date]. Structure of genetic variation in vegetative phenology of Cedrela odorata L.: implications for tree breeding. NEW FORESTS. DOI 10.1007/s11056-021-09862-1.

The study of vegetative phenology is important to understand adaptation to different environments and potential trade-offs with growth traits. Crown leaf-out and leaf-fall phenology was evaluated on 168 open-pollinated families from 19 Cedrela odorata provenances in an eleven-year-old provenance/progeny trial established in the state of Veracruz, Eastern coast of Mexico. The objectives were: (a) to evaluate the extent of inter- and intra-population genetic variation of leaf phenology traits; (b) to examine the relationship between leaf phenology traits and climate variables at the population level; (c) to estimate the genetic relationships between leaf phenology and growth traits; and (d) to evaluate the accuracy, in terms of genetic control, of using alternative methods to measure leaf phenology in broadleaf trees. The study revealed significant genetic variation in leaf phenology traits both among and within populations. Leaf-out traits showed higher genetic variation than leaf-fall traits. A moderate to large genetic differentiation among Cedrela odorata populations was found; Q(st) values for leaf-out were 2-6 times higher than those for leaf-fall. Leaf-fall was primarily associated with mean annual temperature, while leaf-out and length of the leafless period were related to annual precipitation and the aridity index of the site of origin. Leaf phenology traits showed moderate to high genetic control (h(i)(2) = 0.12-0.67; h(f)(2) = 0.27-0.72). However, it was higher for leaf-out traits, so they might play a more important adaptive role. Genetic correlations between leaf phenology and growth traits allow selecting early flushing genotypes within populations to increase adaptation and growth, but caution should be taken when selecting among populations.


HERNANDEZ-VELASCO, J, HERNANDEZ-DIAZ, JC, VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, JJ, HIPKINS, V, PRIETO-RUIZ, JA, PEREZ-LUNA, A and WEHENKEL, C, [no date]. Natural hybridization in seed stands of seven Mexican Pinus species. NEW FORESTS. DOI 10.1007/s11056-021-09868-9.

Natural hybridization can manifest different evolutionary results, such as accelerating differentiation and facilitating speciation through the rapid origin of new biochemical compounds, physiological or morphological phenotypes that allow hybrid species to occupy new habitats, which for parental species would be inaccessible. However, these expectations are not always fulfilled, because natural hybridization between divergent populations can lead to inadequate or unviable hybrids and, therefore, lower forest stability and productivity. Using pure species Pinus arizonica, P. cembroides, P. durangensis, P. engelmannii, P. leiophylla, P. lumholtzii and P. teocote trees and their natural hybrids, this study aims to determine for the first time: (i) morphological differences between pure pine trees and their hybrids molecularly detected, (ii) differences in vigor between 1970 seeds from trees of pure pine species and their hybrid trees (hereinafter called pure and hybrid parents), (iii) differences in vigor between 3465 seedlings from 1421 pure and hybrid parents, and (iv) whether growth of seedlings of hybrid parents is differently associated to parent tree’s environmental conditions, than growth of seedlings of pure parents. The seedlings grew under equal nursery conditions. Our results show some significant differences in morphological traits between the seed trees of pure species and their respective putative hybrid seed trees, and in seed and seedling fitness indices. In contrast to the mean growth of seedlings of hybrid parents, the mean growth of seedlings from pure parents was significantly associated with the parent tree’s bioclimatic conditions studied (R-2 = 0.70 vs 0.83). There were only some individuals that presented hybrid superiority.


LIU, D, CHATER, CCC, YU, FQ and PEREZ-MORENO, J, 2021. Tuber pseudohimalayense ascomata-compartments strongly select their associated bacterial microbiome from nearby pine forest soils independently of their maturation stage. PEDOBIOLOGIA. August 2021. Vol. 87–88. DOI 10.1016/j.pedobi.2021.150743.

Truffles are among the most highly prized edible fungi worldwide. They also constitute complex microhabitats harboring a high diversity of microorganisms, being therefore real holobionts. Our aim was to study whether Tuber pseudohimalayense ascomata-compartments selected their associated bacterial microbiome from that of the surrounding pine forest soil environment. We used high-throughput sequencing of V4 ribosomal DNA regions to characterize and compare the truffle-associated bacterial microbiomes across three maturation stages. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased sequentially from soil, soil adhered to peridium, peridium and gleba. Rhizobiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Bradyrhizobium were the most abundant taxa among the studied compartments. Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) showed that bacterial communities were similar in the truffle surrounding soils, but different from those found in the peridium and gleba, regardless of maturation stage. PICRUSt analysis showed that putative metabolic pathways recorded for terpenoids, polyketides and lipids were significantly higher in the truffles than in the surrounding soils; and increases in low temperature self-protecting proteins, amino acid transport, and substrate-binding proteins were detected during truffle maturation. Here we report for the first time the association of the superphylum Patescibacteria with a truffle and we demonstrate strong T. pseudohimalyense-peridium and gleba selection from the surrounding forest soil microbiome during the whole ascomata maturation process. This constitutes the first study of the T. pseudohimalayense microbiome and its potential ecological functions, characterizing the microbiome of one of the most highly prized fungi in China. Our study sheds some light on the ecological relevance of T. pseudohimalayense and its associated microbiome and their potential relevance in forest belowground processes in the forest ecosystems where they grow.


LIU, D, PEREZ-MORENO, J, ZHANG, P, WANG, R, CHATER, CCC and YU, FQ, 2021. Distinct Compartmentalization of Microbial Community and Potential Metabolic Function in the Fruiting Body of Tricholoma matsutake. JOURNAL OF FUNGI. August 2021. Vol. 7, no. 8. DOI 10.3390/jof7080586.

The uniquely compartmentalized fruiting body structure of the ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) Tricholoma matsutake, is a hotspot of microbial habitation and interaction. However, microbial diversity within this microniche structure of the EMF is rarely investigated. Furthermore, there is limited information concerning microbiomes associated with sporomes belonging to the ubiquitous fungal phylum Basidiomycota, particularly with respect to fungus-EMF interactions. In this study, we conducted high throughput sequencing, using ITS (fungal) and 16S rRNA (bacterial) marker genes to characterize and compare fruiting body microbiomes in the outer (pileipellis and stipitipellis) and inner layers (pileum context, stipe context, and lamellae) of the fruiting body of T. matsutake. Our results show the number of unique bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different compartments ranged from 410 to 499 and was more than double that of the shared/common OTUs (235). Micrococcales, Bacillales, Caulobacter, and Sphingomonas were the primary significant bacterial taxa within the different compartments of the dissected T. matsutake fruiting body. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance showed significant compartmental differences for both the bacterial and the fungal community structure within the T. matsutake fruiting body. The metabolic profiling revealed putative metabolisms (of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides) and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites to be highly enriched in outer layers; in the inner parts, the metabolisms of energy, cofactors, vitamins, and lipids were significantly higher. This study demonstrates for the first time the distinct compartmentalization of microbial communities and potential metabolic function profiles in the fruiting body of an economically important EMF T. matsutake.


LOPEZ-PEREZ, A and FERNANDEZ-REYNOSO, DS, 2021. Watershed prioritization using morphometric analysis and vegetation index: a case study of Huehuetan river sub-basin, Mexico. ARABIAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES. September 2021. Vol. 14, no. 18. DOI 10.1007/s12517-021-08212-x.

Soil degradation is one of the most important issues all over the world. Characterizing and describing a watershed is key to develop action plans that prevent soil degradation. Morphometric analysis and its quantitative description are commonly used to describe a watershed and its drainage system; however, these methodologies are long, and their accuracy can be contested. In this paper, we present an alternative for watershed prioritization by coupling principal component analysis (PCA) with geographic information systems (GIS) for watershed prioritization using morphometric parameters and land cover with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We use data of the Huehuetan river sub-basin, in Chiapas, Mexico, to operationalize our methodology. We found that the principal components (PC01, PC02, and PC03) had a variance more than the 92% in relation to morphometric parameters such as stream frequency (F-s), drainage density (D), elongation ratio (R-e), and drainage texture (D-t). The highest priority was found in the upper part of the sub-basin; watersheds 07, 08, and 06 had the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) priority ranks, respectively, reflecting the importance to establish preventive and corrective measurements to reduce soil degradation and mitigate the effects in lower parts of the sub-basin. From our research, we concluded that the use of PCA is a good tool to discriminate the insignificant parameters from the analysis and improve quality of results. In addition, our methodological proposal saves time on the analysis of morphometric parameters and together with NDVI could be a good methodology for watershed prioritization in tropical and sub-tropical areas like basins located in the southeast part of Mexico.


MACEDA, A, REYES-RIVERA, J, SOTO-HERNANDEZ, M and TERRAZAS, T, [no date]. Distribution and Chemical Composition of Lignin in Secondary Xylem of Cactaceae. CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY. DOI 10.1002/cbdv.202100431.

Cactaceae family has heterogeneity in the accumulation of lignocellulose due to the diversity of shapes and anatomy of the wood. Most studies focus on fibrous and dimorphic species; but the non-fibrous species are poorly studied. The aims of this work were to analyze the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin and its distribution in secondary xylem, especially in non-fibrous species. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was quantified from 34 species of cacti by nitrobenzene oxidation of free-extractive wood. The distribution of lignocellulose in wood sections stained with safranin O/fast green was determined with epifluorescence microscopy. The S/G ratio was heterogeneous; most of the non-fibrous species had a higher percentage of syringyl, while the fibrous ones accumulate guaiacyl. Fluorescence emission showed that vessel elements and wide-band tracheids had similar tonalities. It is hypothesized that the presence of a higher percentage of syringyl in most cacti is part of the defense mechanism against pathogens, which together with the succulence of the stem represent adaptations that contribute to survival in their hostile environments.


MARTINEZ-REYES, CM, RODRIGUEZ-ZARAGOZA, S, CABIROL, N, ALARCON, A and MENDOZA-LOPEZ, MR, [no date]. Effect of Predation by Colpoda sp. in Nitrogen Fixation Rate of Two Free-Living Bacteria. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY. DOI 10.1007/s00248-021-01813-9.

Biological nitrogen fixation is limited to several groups of prokaryotes, some of them reduce nitrogen as free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Protozoa predation on these latter releases sequestered nitrogen that may enhance the formation of new bacterial biomass and possibly increase nitrogen fixation within soil microbial communities. We aim to evaluate the predation effect of Colpoda sp. on two nitrogen fixers: Azospirillum lipoferum and Stenotrophomonas sp. during their lag, early exponential, and exponential phases. The kinetics of bacterial population growth was determined in the predators’ presence or absence and the effect of predation on the rate of N fixation was evaluated through the reduction of acetylene to ethylene technique. Colpoda sp. showed a non-significant difference in preferences between the two species offered as prey. Consequently, the abundance of A. lipoferum and Stenotrophomonas sp. decreased significantly due to predator’s pressure and both species responded by increasing their specific growth rate. Likewise, predation promoted greater nitrogen fixation rate by CFU during the lag phase in A. lipoferum (0.20 nM/CFU with predation vs 0.09 nM/CFU without predation) and Stenotrophomonas sp. (0.22 nM/CFU vs 0.09 nM/CFU respectively). During early exponential phase (29 h), the rate diminished to 0.13 and 0.05 nM/CFU in A. lipoferum and to 0.09 nM/CFU and 0.05 nM/CFU in Stenotrophomonas sp. Finally, during the exponential phase (52 h), only A. lipoferum without predation produced 0.003 nM/CFU of ethylene. Thus, the nitrogenase activity was higher in the lag and the early exponential phases when predator activity was involved.


MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, OA, MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, A, HERNANDEZ-SUAREZ, CM, BARRON-LOPEZ, JA and CROSSA, J, [no date]. Deep-learning power and perspectives for genomic selection. PLANT GENOME. DOI 10.1002/tpg2.20122.

Deep learning (DL) is revolutionizing the development of artificial intelligence systems. For example, before 2015, humans were better than artificial machines at classifying images and solving many problems of computer vision (related to object localization and detection using images), but nowadays, artificial machines have surpassed the ability of humans in this specific task. This is just one example of how the application of these models has surpassed human abilities and the performance of other machine-learning algorithms. For this reason, DL models have been adopted for genomic selection (GS). In this article we provide insight about the power of DL in solving complex prediction tasks and how combining GS and DL models can accelerate the revolution provoked by GS methodology in plant breeding. Furthermore, we will mention some trends of DL methods, emphasizing some areas of opportunity to really exploit the DL methodology in GS; however, we are aware that considerable research is required to be able not only to use the existing DL in conjunction with GS, but to adapt and develop DL methods that take the peculiarities of breeding inputs and GS into consideration.


MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, OA, MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, JC, SALAZAR, E, BARRON, JA, MONTESINOS-LOPEZ, A, BUENROSTRO-MARISCAL, R and CROSSA, J, [no date]. Application of a Poisson deep neural network model for the prediction of count data in genome-based prediction. PLANT GENOME. DOI 10.1002/tpg2.20118.

Genomic selection (GS) is revolutionizing conventional ways of developing new plants and animals. However, because it is a predictive methodology, GS strongly depends on statistical and machine learning to perform these predictions. For continuous outcomes, more models are available for GS. Unfortunately, for count data outcomes, there are few efficient statistical machine learning models for large datasets or for datasets with fewer observations than independent variables. For this reason, in this paper, we applied the univariate version of the Poisson deep neural network (PDNN) proposed earlier for genomic predictions of count data. The model was implemented with (a) the negative log-likelihood of Poisson distribution as the loss function, (b) the rectified linear activation unit as the activation function in hidden layers, and (c) the exponential activation function in the output layer. The advantage of the PDNN model is that it captures complex patterns in the data by implementing many nonlinear transformations in the hidden layers. Moreover, since it was implemented in Tensorflow as the back-end, and in Keras as the front-end, the model can be applied to moderate and large datasets, which is a significant advantage over previous GS models for count data. The PDNN model was compared with deep learning models with continuous outcomes, conventional generalized Poisson regression models, and conventional Bayesian regression methods. We found that the PDNN model outperformed the Bayesian regression and generalized Poisson regression methods in terms of prediction accuracy, although it was not better than the conventional deep neural network with continuous outcomes.


MORALES-ELIAS, NC, MARTINEZ-BARAJAS, E, BERNAL-GRACIDA, LA, GARCIA-ESTEVA, A, PENA-VALDIVIA, CB and PADILLA-CHACON, D, [no date]. C-14-Partitioning and biomass allocation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different moisture levels during pod filling. JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE. DOI 10.1111/jac.12550.

Plants modify their carbon allocation as a response to low water availability. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using a (CO2)-C-14 pulse-chase analysis, the effect of moisture restriction on biomass production in common bean plants var. OTI. The plants were maintained with irrigation until the beginning of pods filling; then, three groups were formed, kept at 100%, 75% or 50% field capacity (FC). After 10 days, (CO2)-C-14 gas was supplied to the plants for 4 hr. The plants were harvested at 1, 3 and 7 days after applying the label. Ripe fruits imported more than 50% of the total C-14. Particularly, the label presented greater changes in pericarps of stage III of pod development. The fructose concentration doubled that of the glucose and decreased with the pod age; sucrose concentration increased in pericarps in stages III and IV of pod development in relation to those in stage II. The sucrose decrease only in stage II pericarps on day 7, as well as the starch concentration that decreased by half in the 50% FC condition. The latter coincided with the highest amylolytic activity as evaluated in native gels. These findings open new opportunities to research the carbon allocation mechanism under moisture restriction.


OTERO-BLANCA, A, PEREZ-LLANO, Y, REBOLEDO-BLANCO, G, LIRA-RUAN, V, PADILLA-CHACON, D, FOLCH-MALLOL, JL, SANCHEZ-CARBENTE, MD, DE LEON, IP and BATISTA-GARCIA, RA, 2021. Physcomitrium patens Infection by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: Understanding the Fungal-Bryophyte Interaction by Microscopy, Phenomics and RNA Sequencing. JOURNAL OF FUNGI. August 2021. Vol. 7, no. 8. DOI 10.3390/jof7080677.

Anthracnose caused by the hemibiotroph fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a devastating plant disease with an extensive impact on plant productivity. The process of colonization and disease progression of C. gloeosporioides has been studied in a number of angiosperm crops. To better understand the evolution of the plant response to pathogens, the study of this complex interaction has been extended to bryophytes. The model moss Physcomitrium patens Hedw. B&S (former Physcomitrella patens) is sensitive to known bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, including C. gloeosporioides, which cause infection and cell death. P. patens responses to these microorganisms resemble that of the angiosperms. However, the molecular events during the interaction of P. patens and C. gloeosporioides have not been explored. In this work, we present a comprehensive approach using microscopy, phenomics and RNA-seq analysis to explore the defense response of P. patens to C. gloeosporioides. Microscopy analysis showed that appressoria are already formed at 24 h after inoculation (hai) and tissue colonization and cell death occur at 24 hai and is massive at 48 hai. Consequently, the phenomics analysis showed progressing browning of moss tissues and impaired photosynthesis from 24 to 48 hai. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that more than 1200 P. patens genes were differentially expressed in response to Colletotrichum infection. The analysis of differentially expressed gene function showed that the C. gloeosporioides infection led to a transcription reprogramming in P. patens that upregulated the genes related to pathogen recognition, secondary metabolism, cell wall reinforcement and regulation of gene expression. In accordance with the observed phenomics results, some photosynthesis and chloroplast-related genes were repressed, indicating that, under attack, P. patens changes its transcription from primary metabolism to defend itself from the pathogen.


PERALTA-CRUZ, C, RODRIGUEZ-BUENFIL, IM, CABAL-PRIETO, A, CUERVO-OSORIO, VD, ONEY-MONTALVO, JE, HERRERA-CORREDOR, JA, RAMIREZ-SUCRE, MO and RAMIREZ-RIVERA, ED, [no date]. Modeling consumer satisfaction to identify drivers for liking: An online survey based on images of Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES. DOI 10.1111/joss.12696.

The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of factors that influence consumer satisfaction (CSAT) and how emotions and sensory attributes are related to the consumer’s preference for Habanero pepper. In Phase 1: A total of 202 Habanero pepper consumers responded to a structured survey to determine the influence of factors on satisfaction using the Partial Least Squares (PLS)-Path modeling technique. In Phase 2: A total of 498 pepper consumers evaluated images of immature, intermediate-ripened, and ripened Habanero peppers assigning emotions, sensory attributes, and liking level for each chili image. Results showed that the relationship between intrinsic, extrinsic quality, and consumer safety influenced CSAT. Immature and ripened chili peppers were most preferred. Immature chilies elicited calm, bored, tame, and mild emotions that were related to attributes green vegetable, fresh leaf, and crunchiness. Ripened Habanero peppers elicited emotions such as loving, pleasant, active, worried, satisfied, happy, guilty, wild, aggressive, and joyful that were related to attributes mouth heat, mouth hardness, mouth numbness, and pungency. Satisfaction of Habanero pepper consumers is influenced by safety, extrinsic and intrinsic quality which includes emotions and sensory aspects such as color and texture. Practical Applications The use of online questionnaires is an effective tool to collect data for the explanation of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic factors from the consumer’s point of view and for the evaluation of sensory attributes and emotions evoked through images of Habanero pepper. This makes it possible to identify different patterns of consumer liking levels that can be a key element in the generation of marketing strategies. Results from this research are important for the chili industry, producers, gastronomes and international and nationals’ researchers dedicated to the production, processing, use, and research of the Habanero pepper.



During ethanol production from maize corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, at tables labelled in Spanish as GSDS) are generated and used in poultry farming because of their high nutrient content. The hypothesis was that DDGS meet nutrient requirements in pullets and hens and xylanase will improve productive variables. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the inclusion of DDGS and xylanase in pullet and hen feed. In this study, 400 pullets from one day to 70 weeks of age were used, distributed in 10 treatments, with five replicates of eight pullets apiece, and a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with five levels of DDGS (0, 8, 8, 16, 24 and 32%) and two of xylanase (0 and 0.05%). Variables were productive yield, sexual maturity, egg quality, cost per pullet and per kg of egg. Results indicated that in pullets, DDGS and xylanase did not modify the productive and sexual maturity variables (p>0.05); in laying, from 16% DDGS onwards, production began to be affected, while the enzyme had a positive effect (p <= 0.05) on yield. With 32% DDGS, the cost of rearing and one kg of egg increased (p <= 0.05). In egg quality, DDGS improved Haugh units and yolk color (p <= 0.05), while xylanase affected them (p <= 0.05). In conclusion, in pullets up to 32% DDGS can be included with success for productive and sexual maturity variables, while xylanase is not necessary. In hens, DDGS above 16% cause adverse effects on egg yield and price, while xylanase improves productive variables and decreases egg cost.


PINEDA, LAP, CONTRERAS, YM, GALARZA, MDA, MORALES, MC, MARANON, AH, DIAZ, MPR and ANDRADE, EF, 2021. Clustering function and minimum change in spreading pressure as key factor to predict storage conditions for black pepper oleoresin encapsulated by spray drying. FOOD BIOSCIENCE. August 2021. Vol. 42. DOI 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101215.

Black pepper oleoresin was encapsulated by spray drying using gum arabic (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as wall materials. The physical surface features were examined using low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. Clustering function and spreading pressure were evaluated to predict optimal storage conditions of the microcapsules, through analyzing the data from the water adsorption isotherms determined using a gravimetric method at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C. Kinetic studies of the color changes and loss of piperine of the microcapsules stored at different water activities at 35 degrees C were carried out. It was found that the GAB, BET and Condon models adequately describe the sorption characteristics. The monolayers calculated with the clustering function and minimum change in spreading pressure (MCSP) were close to those obtained by the adsorption models. The isotherms local from the Condon model coincided with the levels of stability of the microcapsules. Two local isotherms were found for GA microcapsules, which exhibited two regions of chemical stability during storage. One region with high stability in the range of 0.108-0.515 aw, and the other with poor stability of 0.515-0.821 aw. Conversely, WPC microcapsules showed one isotherm local, which had high stability in the entire water activity range studied. For both microcapsules, the lowest values of color changes were of 1.5-4, while the degradation rate constants were -0.017 day(-1) and -0.002 day(-1) for GA and WPC, respectively. The water activities where occurred the optimal stability fall within of the MCSP zone.


PRISCILIANO-VAZQUEZ, JR, GALINDO-AGUILAR, E, LAVARIEGA, MC, LUNA-KRAULETZ, MD, ESPINOZA-RAMIREZ, MK, CLARK-TAPIA, R and ALFONSO-CORRADO, C, 2021. Occurrence of jaguar (Panthera onca) in the Chinantla region, southern Mexico. CALDASIA. July 2021. Vol. 43, no. 2, p. 412–415. DOI

The jaguar (Panthera onca) has been experiencing a considerable range reduction due to habitat loss and poaching. Habitat suitability models have identified areas likely to maintain populations, but field data are scarce for several of them. Between 2012 and 2017, we investigated the jaguar occurrence in 35 communities of the Chinantla region, southern Mexico, throughout camera trapping in non-systematic surveys. We recorded 124 independent events of 23 jaguars in thirteen communities. Jaguars recorded over the years, couples and pregnant females are highlighted in the Chinantla region as a stronghold to the jaguar.28.



RICARDEZ-MIRANDA, LE, LAGUNES-ESPINOZA, LC, HERNANDEZ-NATAREN, E, PALMA-LOPEZ, DJ and CONDE-MARTINEZ, FV, 2021. Water restriction during the vegetative and reproductive stages of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, and its effect on growth, secondary metabolites and fruit yield. SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE. 27 July 2021. Vol. 285. DOI 10.1016/j.scienta.2021.110129.

The fruits of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, due to their culinary use, have a high market demand in southeastern Mexico. The obtained product is the result of the abiotic and biotic conditions that this species faces during its development and production under wild conditions because its cultivation has not yet been established. To advance the knowledge of the response of this chili to abiotic factors, the growth, secondary metabolite concentrations and yields of plants subjected to water deficit (WD) were evaluated during two phenological stages: vegetative and reproductive (flowering and fruiting). Two independent experiments were established, each under a completely randomized design with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The treatments were a) with and without WD during the vegetative stage (VS) and b) with and without WD during the reproductive stage (RS). Each treatment comprised groups of 20 plants and had four sampling dates. The results showed that the application of WD during the VS affected the growth, accumulation of biomass, leaf area, and duration of the phenological stages of this species. During the VS, WD decreased the number and weight of plant 1 fruits (60.9 and 59.4 %, respectively) compared to the treatment without WD. In both stages, the proline content in leaves increased (93.9-100%) with WD. The concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in leaves and the contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruits were not affected by WD in either the VS or RS. In general, this species is more sensitive to WD applied during the VS than the RS.


RODRIGUEZ-MAGADAN, HM, HERNANDEZ-BAUTISTA, J, CADENA-VILLEGAS, S, SALINAS-RIOS, T, SILVA-RODRIGUEZ, E, TORRES-AGUILAR, H and SOSA-MONTES, E, 2021. Reproductive and metabolic response and body changes in ewes fed with two energy levels. REVISTA MVZ CORDOBA. September 2021. Vol. 26, no. 3. DOI 10.21897/rmvz.2129.

Objective. To evaluate the reproductive response, metabolic state and body changes in Dorper and Katahdin ewes supplemented with two energy levels prior to insemination. Materials and methods. The animals used in this experiment were 14 Katahdin and 13 Dorper ewes distributed in two treatments, in which estrus had been synchronized. Fourteen days prior to synchronization of estrus, the ewes were distributed in two treatments according to the energy level of the diet, T1:2.0 and T2:2.5 Mcal kg(-1) of ME. Feeding consisted of 14 days of adaptation and 14 of feeding with integral diet. At the start and finish of each study, measurements were made of dorsal fat thickness, area of the rib-eye, body weight and glucose and insulin concentrations. The principal reproductive parameters were measured, such as response to estrus, percentage of gestation and prolificity. Analyses of variance were made along with ji-squared tests to determine the effect of the energy level and genotype. Results. The genotype and energy level did not affect any of the variables measured, although it was found that with both energy levels there was an increase in glucose concentrations, as well as an increase in weight, body fat and area of the rib-eye. Conclusions. Because there was no difference in the reproductive parameters and body changes with feeding in the two energy levels, it is preferable to use the feed with 2.0 Mcal kg(-1) of ME, given that it reduces costs.


RODRIGUEZ-URIBE, ML, PENA-CABRIALES, JJ, RIVERA-CRUZ, MD and DELANO-FRIER, JP, 2021. Native bacteria isolated from weathered petroleum oil-contaminated soils in Tabasco, Mexico, accelerate the degradation petroleum hydrocarbons in saline soil microcosms. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION. August 2021. Vol. 23. DOI 10.1016/j.eti.2021.101781.

Bioremediation is an environmentally sound and cost-effective strategy to restore soils contaminated with petroleum oil. In this study, native bio-surfactant-producing bacteria able to use polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: anthracene [ANT] or phenanthrene [PHE]) as their sole carbon source were isolated from soil contaminated with weathered petroleum oil (WPO) collected near "La Venta’’ gas processing complex, in Tabasco, Mexico. Bacteria able to grow in 200 ppm of ANT or PHE and having high bio-surfactant activity were selected. Included were bacteria identified as Sphingobium sp., Bosea sp., Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Phenylobacterium sp. Different consortia of these bacteria +/- bio-stimulation with glucose, ammonium nitrate, or both, were examined for their capacity to degrade either WPO or fresh crude petroleum oil (FCPO) in soil microcosms. No efficient short-term (24 days) degradation of WPO using bio-augmentation and bio-stimulation strategies was possible using two bacterial consortia conformed by combinations of these bacterial isolates. Best results were obtained with a consortium composed of Pseudomonas cloritidismutans and Rhodococcus qingshengii, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, which led to an 86% reduction of FCPO contaminants in soil microcosms, 90 days after treatment. However, the bioremediation efficiency of this consortium was significantly reduced by moderate salinity levels in the soil. Although promising, these results highlight the adverse effect that weathering and/or salinity may have on the remediation of petroleum oil-contaminated soils. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


RUIZ-SAENZ, DR, LOPEZ-DELGADO, HA, HERNANDEZ, DDA, TREJO, C, MORA-HERRERA, ME and MORTERA, EU, [no date]. Induction of tolerance to cryogenic protocols in Solanum tuberosum by salicylic acid is mediated by enzymatic antioxidant activity and hydrogen peroxide. JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE & BIOTECHNOLOGY. DOI 10.1080/14620316.2021.1949397.

Two applications of cryogenic protocols are cryotherapy and cryopreservation for virus cleaning and germplasm storage. They are based on exposing explants to ultra-low temperature (-196 degrees C) in liquid nitrogen. Ultra-low temperature in cryogenics implies abiotic stress, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are the main reason for the low survival and death of explants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS produced by stress. Enzymatic antioxidants like catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) are essential for avoiding damage due to H2O2, which is a primary signal against stress. Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in tolerance to stress-like cryogeny. Information about the relationship between SA-cryogeny-antioxidant enzymatic activity is scarce. The objective was to evaluate the induction of cryogeny tolerance by SA associated with antioxidant activities like CAT, POX, and H2O2 and proline accumulation in tissue, during cryogenic protocols in two clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). SA-induced cryogenic tolerance in both clones, mediated by reducing CAT enzymatic activity, higher H2O2 content, proline accumulation and higher water potential before cryogeny. Enhanced CAT and POX activities after cryogeny were related to decreased H2O2 content and higher survival. Results suggest the signalling role of H2O2 in the induction of tolerance to cryogenic stress.



Table grapes (Vitis vinifera) are one of the crops of highest economic and social relevance in Sonora, Mexico. Due to the scant precipitation and high evaporative demand of the zone, it is a crop with a high-water requirement. Therefore, its production depends on the application of irrigation, and it is important to have precise and extensive estimation of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to improve efficiency of irrigation in the short term. This research was carried out during 2018 and 2019 with the objective of developing and evaluating a model between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated with Sentinel-2 images, and the crop coefficient (K-c) determined with a covariance turbulence flux system (Eddy Covariance, EC) as an option for estimating the ETc of a vineyard of table grapes in Costa de Hermosillo, Sonora. Using NDVI and K-c data from 2018 records, a simple regression model was constructed with the start forced to the origin at the null coordinates (K-CNDVI = 0.9467 NDVI; R-2 = 0.74) as a base for ETc estimation. When the regression model was validated with daily 2019 data, an R-2 of 0.76 was obtained along with a CME of 0.11 by relating K-CNDVI Whereas by relating ETc vs. estimated ETc, an R-2 of 0.92 was found, and a CME of 0.67 mm d(-1). The results indicated that the ETc can be estimated with adequate precision and in an opportune manner with the proposed model. However, it was found that the model may underestimate ETc during the period of maximum crop development due to NDVI saturation. However, in the winter when the values of NDVI depend on the soil structural characteristics and on the remains of winter pruning, ETc tends to be overestimated.


SANTILLAN-FERNANDEZ, A, SALINAS-MORENO, Y, VALDEZ-LAZALDE, JR, CARMONA-ARELLANO, MA, VERA-LOPEZ, JE and PEREIRA-LORENZO, S, 2021. Relationship between Maize Seed Productivity in Mexico between 1983 and 2018 with the Adoption of Genetically Modified Maize and the Resilience of Local Races. AGRICULTURE-BASEL. August 2021. Vol. 11, no. 8. DOI 10.3390/agriculture11080737.

Mexico depends on maize imports to satisfy its national demand. The use of native maize varieties among subsistence farmers can help to reduce the cereal’s imports. However, the agricultural policy in Mexico to improve the productivity per hectare has centered on the use of improved varieties; among them, the transgenic variety. In this study, the maize productivity in Mexico from 1983 to 2018 was analyzed to determine the influence of agricultural policies in the sector, and the factors that condition the adoption of transgenic maize. It was found that the agricultural policy improved the productivity of those regions with irrigation; however, for rainfed regions, the expected technological changes were not achieved because the ancestral tradition in cultivation, associated with the greater variety of native maize and to a larger indigenous population, was stronger. The adoption of transgenic maize also had low significance in the rainfed regions, since the increase in field yields is not economically profitable with regards to the increase in production costs. Therefore, the agricultural policy to increase productivity ought to be directed at the protection of subsistence farmers, revaluing the use of native varieties that have shown higher resilience to technological and environmental changes.


SILVA-AGUAYO, G, AGUILAR-MARCELINO, L, CUEVAS-PADILLA, E, LOYOLA-ZAPATA, P, RODRIGUEZ-MACIEL, JC, CASTANEDA-RAMIREZ, G and FIGUEROA-CARES, I, 2021. Essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina against the nematode Haemonchus contortus (L3) and three stored cereal insect pests. CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. July 2021. Vol. 81, no. 3, p. 390–397. DOI 10.4067/S0718-58392021000300390.

Alternative methods of control against different parasites affecting livestock and agriculture are currently being sought. The essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina has anthelmintic and insecticidal activity against the nematode Haemonchus contortus and stored cereal insect pests. The present study aimed to assess the in vitro activity of P. boldus essential oil against H. contortus (L3) unsheathed and Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum, and Plodia interpunctella. The essential oil was obtained from leaves of P. boldus and its principal compounds identified by phytochemical analysis. Essential oil was tested at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 mg mL(-1) on unsheathed L3 H. contortus larvae and in concentrations of 0, 35, 70, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 mu L L-1 air on adult insects. The main constituents detected in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole, terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, gamma-terpinene, p-cimene, methyl eugenol, safrole, (E)-germacrene D, beta-tujene, and ascaridol. The nematode H. contortus and insects were exposed to the essential oil for 72 h. In a bioassay with H. contortus larvae, treatment with 2.0 mg mL(-1) showed the highest toxicity with 99.2% mortality. Regarding insecticidal activity, S. zeamais was the most susceptible species with a mortality of 90% at 200 mu L L-1 air. The present study suggests that the essential oil of P. boldus has potential anthelmintic and insecticidal activity.


SOBARZO-BERNAL, O, GOMEZ-MERINO, FC, ALCANTAR-GONZALEZ, G, SAUCEDO-VELOZ, C and TREJO-TELLEZ, LI, 2021. Biostimulant Effects of Cerium on Seed Germination and Initial Growth of Tomato Seedlings. AGRONOMY-BASEL. August 2021. Vol. 11, no. 8. DOI 10.3390/agronomy11081525.

The rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) can act as a biostimulant in diverse crop plants. The effects of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mu M Ce (supplied as CeCl3 7H(2)O) on seed germination and the initial growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Vengador were evaluated. After a 12 h imbibition, the weight of the seeds treated with 15 mu M Ce was 37.5% greater than that observed in the control. The germination index of the seeds treated with 5 mu M Ce was greater than 100% (101.93%), though when applying 10 mu M Ce this index was 17.53% lower than the control seeds. Nevertheless, Ce treatments did not significantly affect the coefficient of velocity of germination, relative seed germination, germination index, radicle length, dry biomass, or relative growth. Interestingly, shoot length increased significantly in the treatments with 5, 10, and 15 mu M Ce. This tendency was also observed in the dry biomass weight and relative growth of the shoots. Hence, Ce has a stimulating effect on germination and initial growth in tomato cv. Vengador shoots. In particular, there was a priming effect of Ce on seeds, reflected in a higher weight gain in Ce-treated seeds, which indicated greater water absorption. Therefore, Ce can be an alternative to accelerate the production time of tomato seedlings in seedbeds.


VALADEZ-MOCTEZUMA, E, RAMIREZ-ALBA, NA, SANCHEZ-AVILA, AS, SAMAH, S, VALDOVINOS-PONCE, G and SOTO-HERNANDEZ, RM, 2021. Histological, hormonal and nutritional changes in Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) cladodes with thickening symptoms. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY. August 2021. Vol. 115. DOI 10.1016/j.pmpp.2021.101688.

Thickening or stunting of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes is one of the most striking diseases of the crop. It is characterized by the development of abnormally thickened cladodes, dwarfism and malformations. To describe the histological changes and to quantify hormones and nutritional elements in thickened cladodes, microscopic histological sections were compared, and hormones and nutritional elements were quantified from thickened and healthy cladodes. Greater heterogeneity was found at the cellular and tissue level in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic cladodes. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia were found in some areas of the thickened cladode tissues. Moreover, an increase in tracheids and vessel elements was observed, and several of these vascular bundles were damaged. On the other hand, the presence of a greater amount of amyloplasts and calcium oxalate crystals was found in the parenchyma of thickened cladodes than in the healthy ones. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the accumulation of the ABA, IAA, AG3 and zeatin hormones between thickened and healthy cladodes from plants established in the greenhouse with experimental nutritional conditions. On the contrary, the potassium, nitrogen, sodium and zinc elements were accumulated with lower quantity in thickened than in healthy cladodes, with levels of 68.3%, 67.6%, 55.3% and 36.2%, respectively, while phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, manganese and iron were accumulated in greater amounts in thickened cladodes compared to healthy cladodes, with levels of 20.3%, 17.2%, 16.1%, 256.1% and 200.2%, respectively. These findings improved our understanding of the physiological and anatomical mechanisms of this disease.


VELEZ, YSP, CARRILLO-GONZALEZ, R and GONZALEZ-CHAVEZ, MDA, 2021. Interaction of metal nanoparticles-plants-microorganisms in agriculture and soil remediation. JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH. September 2021. Vol. 23, no. 9. DOI 10.1007/s11051-021-05269-3.

Design products or technologies that incorporate metal nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture need to be safe for consumers, soil microorganisms, and environment friendly. This review analyzed application advances of metal NPs in crop production and soil remediation, which are two major challenges that are constraining world sustainability and food security. The use of NPs in agriculture is also explored as a tool to improve plant productivity, control phytopathogens and viruses, monitor the quality and health of plants and soil, and seed-priming. Concerning soil remediation, this review focuses on potentially toxic element pollution when NPs are used as an assisted phytoremediation alternative, combined with electrokinetic remediation, or for acid mining drainage remediation, as well as their role in photocatalysis. In addition, it addresses the pathways of interaction with soil properties, plants, and soil microorganisms, which are relevant factors influencing NPs fate and behavior in soil and their functions. Finally, this review aimed to explore the common purposes and challenges of nanotechnology in agriculture and remediation, which may be the basis for new technologies.