domingo, 31 de diciembre de 2023




Producción científica de documentos publicados en revistas indizadas en el Science Citation Index Expanded y el Social Sciences Citation Index del Web de la Ciencia. 

Periodo: Septiembre-diciembre 2023.

Angel Bravo Vinaja (

Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus San Luis Potosí. Programa Innovación en el Manejo de Recursos Naturales.

                                                                Salinas de Hidalgo, S. L. P., México. 30 de diciembre de 2023. 



Mismanagement of pastures in semi-arid areas has resulted in the loss of forage plant species that limit livestock productivity. One strategy to improve vegetation cover with grass is to develop seedlings in greenhouse for subsequent transplantation at the beginning of the rainy season. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combination of substrates on the growth of seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) in greenhouse and the survival of seedlings to the effect of agrochemicals for the control of broad-leaved weeds. A completely randomized design was used in factorial arrangement to evaluate 13 substrate combinations and their effects on plant height, leaf area and morphological composition, as well as seedling survival after the application of 2,4-D amine, 2,4-D ester and atrazine at 1000, 1500 and 2000 g of active ingredient (a.i.) in 200 L water at 14, 19, 23, 28 and 32 days after sowing. Analysis of variance and comparison of means with the Tukey test (P <= 0.05) were carried out. The simplest and most effective combination in the development of seedlings was soil + gravel 3:1, but in the same way organic matter can be incorporated as sheep or rabbit precompost at 1/3. At younger age of sideoats grama seedlings there is more damage due to the effect of herbicides for broad-leaved weeds and the most harmful combination was 2000 g i.a. of 2.4-D amine + atrazine, so it is recommended to apply 2.4-D amine or 2.4-D ester at 1000 g a.i. up to 23 days after sowing.


ARAGON-MARTINEZ, OH, MARTINEZ-MORALES, F, GONZÁLEZ-CHÁVEZ, MM, MÉNDEZ-GALLEGOS, SD, GONZÁLEZ-CHÁVEZ, R, POSADAS-HURTADO, JC and ISIORDIA-ESPINOZA, MA, 2023. Dactylopius opuntiae [Cockerell] Could Be a Source of Antioxidants for the Preservation of Beef Patties. INSECTS. October 2023. Vol. 14, no. 10. DOI 10.3390/insects14100811.

Dactylopius opuntiae, known as wild cochineal, is an insect pest of cactus crops in several countries, which produces important economic losses in this agricultural sector. The objective of our study was to use an agricultural pest as a preservative source for the beef meat industry, which is in search of a natural preservative to replace the approved synthetic additives, such as butylated hydroxytoluene. Our study showed the usefulness of a D. opuntiae extract, which was obtained using an accessible procedure, to preserve the color and reduce the oxidation process on beef patties stored under refrigeration. The beneficial actions on meat parameters were caused by the presence of carminic acid, which is a metabolite found in this insect with antioxidant properties, where that ability was supported by using two synthetic free radicals scavenging assays. Our study provides a feasible, solid-liquid extraction to obtain an antioxidant preservative with direct application on beef patties and supports their use by the improvement of meat acceptability criteria. The importance of our study lies in the fact that beef meat has a crucial role in human nutrition, and ground beef constitutes 64% of the meat consumed by humans.


AVILA-VICTOR, CM, ARJONA-SUÁREZ, ED, IRACHETA-DONJUAN, L, VALDEZ-CARRASCO, JM, GÓMEZ-MERINO, FC and ROBLEDO-PAZ, A, 2023. Callus Type, Growth Regulators, and Phytagel on Indirect Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. var. Colombia). PLANTS-BASEL. October 2023. Vol. 12, no. 20. DOI 10.3390/plants12203570.

Coffee is a crop of global relevance. Indirect somatic embryogenesis has allowed plants of different coffee genotypes to be massively regenerated. The culture medium composition can affect the calli characteristics that are generated and their ability to form somatic embryos. This research aimed to determine the influence of the type of callus, growth regulators, and phytagel concentration on the embryogenic capacity of the Colombia variety. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0.5-1.0 mg L-1), benzylaminopurine (BAP, 1.0 mg L-1), and phytagel (2.3-5.0 g L-1). The explants generated two types of calli: friable (beige, soft, watery, easy disintegration, polyhedral parenchyma cells) and compact (white, hard, low water content, difficult disintegration, elongated parenchyma cells). About 68% of the total callus generated was compact; this type of callus produced a greater number of embryos (71.3) than the friable one (29.2). The number of differentiated embryos was significantly affected by the concentration of phytagel; higher concentrations (5.0 g L-1) resulted in larger quantities (73.7). The highest number of embryos (127.47) was obtained by combining 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D, 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, 5.0 g L-1 phytagel, and compact callus.


AYALA-VÁSQUEZ, O, MARTÍNEZ-REYES, M, PÉREZ-MORENO, J, MARTÍNEZ-GONZÁLEZ, CR, PINZÓN, JP, DE LA FUENTE, JI, CASTRO-RIVERA, R, GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J, BALBUENA-CARRASCO, S, RAMÍREZ-CARBAJAL, E and YU, FQ, 2023. Five New Species of Aureoboletus and Chalciporus (Boletaceae, Boletales) and Their Ethnomycological Aspects. JOURNAL OF FUNGI. October 2023. Vol. 9, no. 10. DOI 10.3390/jof9101041.

Among Boletales, the family Boletaceae has the highest diversity worldwide. Additionally, this fungal group has great ecological relevance because it not only includes mainly ectomycorrhizal but also saprotrophic species. Furthermore, some species are used as food and have sociocultural and economic importance worldwide. In Mexico, the Boletaceae family boasts a substantial number of species, yet our understanding of these species remains far from comprehensive. In this work, by using macro- and micromorphological and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from multi-gene analyses based on ITS, nrLSU, rpb1, rpb2, and tef1, we report five new species belonging to the genera Aureoboletus and Chalciporus: A. ayuukii and A. elvirae from a Quercus scytophylla forest, A. readii from a mixed forest, C. perezsilvae from cloud forest, and C. piedracanteadensis from both a mixed coniferous forest and a Quercus-Pinus forest. In Mexico, four species of Aureoboletus are used as a food source, and in this work, we add another one, A. readii, which is traditionally consumed by members of the Tlahuica-Pjiekakjoo culture, who are located in the central part of the country. This work contributes to our knowledge of two genera of Boletaceae in a geographical area that is scarcely studied, and thus, our understanding of its biocultural relevance is enriched.


BARRERA-RAMÍREZ, R, VARGAS-HERNÁNDEZ, JJ, GÓMEZ-CÁRDENAS, M, TREVIÑO-GARZA, EJ and PÉREZ-LUNA, A, 2024. Interaction and compatibility in reciprocal grafting with two varieties of Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE CIENCIAS FORESTALES Y DEL AMBIENTE. January 2024. Vol. 30, no. 1, p. 1–16. DOI 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2022.10.079.

Introduction: Compatibility between the parts involved in grafting is one of the factors defining its success, growth, and productivity. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the level of taxonomic affinity in the scion/rootstock combination on the survival and shoot growth of reciprocal grafts of Pinus pseudostrobus var. pseudostrobus and P. pseudostrobus var. oaxacana. Materials and methods: The effect of the following three factors was determined: (a) three affinity levels, (b) two varieties of P. pseudostrobus and (c) four scion/ rootstock genotypes, on survival and shoot growth (Sg). An ANOVA was performed to determine the effect of factors a, b and c and their interactions on survival and Sg, and a Log-Rank test was carried out for survival analysis. Results and discussion: Factor a determined that survival was higher in intervarietal grafts (53.3 %); factor b indicated that grafts with scions of var. pseudostrobus had higher survival (47.2 %); finally, factor c showed the existence of genotypes that increase success if used as scion and decrease if used as rootstock. Sg only showed statistical differences associated with the effect of factor c, being higher for genotype 62 of var. pseudostrobus (18.1 +/- 0.63 cm), and in its interaction with factor (a). Conclusions: There is an adequate level of compatibility between the two varieties of P. pseudostrobus with significant effect of variety and scion genotype especially in intervarietal grafting (survival greater than 70 %).


BUENDÍA-VALVERDE, MD, GÓMEZ-MERINO, FC, CORONA-TORRES, T, MATEOS-NAVA, RA and TREJO-TÉLLEZ, LI, 2023. Effects of Cadmium, Thallium, and Vanadium on Photosynthetic Parameters of Three Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Varieties. PLANTS-BASEL. October 2023. Vol. 12, no. 20. DOI 10.3390/plants12203563.

Photosynthesis is a crucial process supporting life on Earth. However, unfavorable environmental conditions including toxic metals may limit the photosynthetic efficiency of plants, and the responses to those challenges may vary among genotypes. In this study, we evaluated photosynthetic parameters of the chili pepper varieties Jalapeno, Poblano, and Serrano exposed to Cd (0, 5, 10 mu M), Tl (0, 6, 12 nM), and V (0, 0.75, 1.5 mu M). Metals were added to the nutrient solution for 60 days. Stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (Pn/Ci), instantaneous water use efficiency (instWUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were recorded. Mean Pn increased with 12 nM Tl in Serrano and with 0.75 mu M V in Poblano. Tl and V increased mean Tr in all three cultivars, while Cd reduced it in Jalapeno and Serrano. Gs was reduced in Jalapeno and Poblano with 5 mu M Cd, and 0.75 mu M V increased it in Serrano. Ci increased in Poblano with 6 nM Tl, while 12 nM Tl reduced it in Serrano. Mean instWUE increased in Poblano with 10 mu M Cd and 0.75 mu M V, and in Serrano with 12 nM Tl, while 6 nM Tl reduced it in Poblano and Serrano. Mean iWUE increased in Jalapeno and Poblano with 5 mu M Cd, in Serrano with 12 nM Tl, and in Jalapeno with 1.5 mu M V; it was reduced with 6 nM Tl in Poblano and Serrano. Pn/Ci increased in Serrano with 5 mu M Cd, in Jalapeno with 6 nM Tl, and in Poblano with 0.75 mu M V. Interestingly, Tl stimulated six and inhibited five of the seven photosynthetic variables measured, while Cd enhanced three and decreased two variables, and V stimulated five variables, with none inhibited, all as compared to the respective controls. We conclude that Cd, Tl, and V may inhibit or stimulate photosynthetic parameters depending on the genotype and the doses applied.


CAMACHO-RONQUILLO, J, POSADAS-MANZANO, E, UTRERA-QUINTANA, F, HERNÁNDEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, J, GALLEGOS-SÁNCHEZ, J, CRUZ-AVIÑA, J and VILLA-MANCERA, A, 2023. Can bovine embryos be successfully transferred after 40 years of cryopreservation? ARQUIVO BRASILEIRO DE MEDICINA VETERINARIA E ZOOTECNIA. September 2023. Vol. 75, no. 5, p. 909–913. DOI 10.1590/1678-4162-13035.

Global advances in reproductive biotechnology have allowed for the transfer of embryos from donor females with high genetic merit to recipients using the cryopreservation technique, which preserves an embryo of excellent quality and viability, thereby achieving a feasible pregnancy rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and viability of Holstein embryos that have been cryopreserved for more than 40 years under glycerol freezing. The embryos were transferred to the recipient heifers using a non-surgical method. Two 17-month-old Holstein heifers (360 kg live weights) which were clinically healthy and reproductively active were used as the recipients. Two bovine embryos of Grade 1 quality were thawed and evaluated for their morphology. Of the two embryo transfers, one pregnancy was achieved, resulting in the birth of a calf. Therefore, embryos frozen in liquid nitrogen and glycerol as a cryopreservative for more than 40 years maintained their quality and viability to produce a live calf.


CARRIÓN, MG, CORRIPIO, MAR, CONTRERAS, JVH, MARRÓN, MR, OLÁN, GM and CÁAZARES, ASH, 2023. Optimization and characterization of taro starch, nisin, and sodium alginate-based biodegradable films: antimicrobial effect in chicken meat. POULTRY SCIENCE. December 2023. Vol. 102, no. 12. DOI 10.1016/j.psj.2023.103100.

Biodegradable films based on polymers from renewable resources have become a feasible tech-nology to preserve the quality (texture, color, flavor) and safety of food. The addition of antimicrobial agents to films can prevent the growth of pathogenic microor-ganisms that affect meat and poultry products. In this study, a biodegradable film with sodium alginate (SA), taro starch (MS), and nisin (Nis) was optimized to have high tensile strength (TS), breaking force (BF), and a low water vapor permeability (WVP) using a Box-Behnken response surface design, and its antimi-crobial effect was evaluated in relation to its use as a packaging material for chicken meat. The OB was char-acterized via analysis of its mechanical, physical, and chemical properties; in addition, the total migration of Nis was also analyzed, along with its retention ability, the kinetics of the release of Nis into food simulants, and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocy-togenes in vitro and on inoculated chicken meat. The resulting optimal OB was produced with 1.9% MS, 1% glycerol (G), and 2,369 IU/mL of Nis, and displayed adequate TS and WVP. The OB significantly reduced the microbial load and helped extend the shelf life of the chicken meat under refrigeration by up to 15 d. Total migration and the kinetics of the release of Nis showed that the OB can be used on hydrophilic and acidic foods, making it a natural alternative for use in food packaging.


COHUO-COLLI, JM, ALMARAZ-SUAREZ, JJ, VELASCO-VELASCO, J, SALINAS-RUÍZ, J, GALVIS-SPÍNOLA, A and DELGADILLO-MARTÍNEZ, J, 2023. Compost as a source of rizobacteria to stimulate the growth of micropropagated sugarcane plants. ITEA-INFORMACION TECNICA ECONOMICA AGRARIA. 15 September 2023. DOI 10.12706/itea.2023.013.

Compost is a source of microorganisms with different functions in plants. The objective was to evaluate the effect of rhizobacterial strains isolated from filter cake and chicken manure compost on micropropagated sugarcane plants during greenhouse acclimatization. Strains from composts obtained from mix of filter cake + chicken manure (C1 = 25:75 v/v; C2 = 50:50 v/v; C3 = 75:25 v/v and C4 = 100:0 v/v) were isolated by the technique of dilutions and spreading in plates. The isolated strains were evaluated for their ability to produce auxins and solubilize phosphates. The best strains were identified at the molecular level and inoculated into micropropagated sugarcane seedlings. 63 bacterial strains were isolated, of which 14 that presented growth promotion mechanisms were selected. The identified bacterial strains were highly similar to 7 genera: Bacillus, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Paenarthrobacter, Weizmannia, and Staphylococus. The inoculation of rhizobacteria in sugarcane plants, during the acclimatization phase, showed that Achromobacter xyloxosidans CPOC56 and Acinetobacter viviannii CPOC48 significantly increased height (40 %), leaf area (107 %), root volume (124 %), dry weight (93 %), nitrogen (115 %) and phosphorus (133 %) content, compared with the control. The filter cake and chicken manure compost was a reservoir of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, the 14 selected strains with beneficial attributes belonged to 11 different species. The Achromobacter xyloxosidans CPOC56 and Acinetobacter vivianii CPOC48 strains are a good option to promote growth during the acclimatization phase of micropropagated sugarcane plants.


CONTRERAS-MAYA, R, VILLEGAS-MONTER, A, CRUZ-HUERTA, N, SANTACRUZ-VARELA, A and ORTEGA-ARENAS, LD, 2023. Photosynthetic response of citrus to Citrus tristeza virus isolates with potential for cross-protection. PESQUISA AGROPECUARIA BRASILEIRA. 2023. Vol. 58. DOI 10.1590/S1678-3921.pab2023.v58.03290.

The objective of this work was to evaluate the photosynthetic response of citrus varieties to the inoculation of isolates T30 and T3 of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) characterized as having potential to provide cross-protection against severe CTV isolates in citrus. Citrus plants of “Campbell” orange, “Persian” lime, and “Key” lime were subjected to inoculations by both isolates by patch. Noninoculated plants were used as the control. Symptom expression, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and stomatal conductance were evaluated by IRGA. Stomatal density and size were evaluated by epidermal impressions. The CTV isolates were also evaluated and molecularly characterized by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. “Campbell” orange and “Persian” lime plants remained asymptomatic after the inoculations. The inoculation treatments with both CTV isolates did not reduce photosynthetic capacity, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, in comparison with the control. Stomatal density and size varied according to the citrus species. T30 and T3 do not affect the photosynthetic responses of “Campbell” orange and “Persian” lime; therefore, these isolates have the potential to provide cross-protection to citrus varieties against severe isolates of CTV.


CRUZ-LABANA, JD, TARANGO-ARÁMBULA, LA, ALCÁNTARA-CARBAJAL, JL, UGALDE-LEZAMA, S, DELGADO-ALVARADO, A and CROSBY-GALVÁN, MM, 2023a. Nest density of the “escamolera” ant (Liometopum apiculatum Mayr) and its relationship with scrubland habitat. REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE CIENCIAS FORESTALES Y DEL AMBIENTE. September 2023. Vol. 29, no. 3, p. 31–45. DOI 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2022.08.056.

Introduction: The ant Liometopum apiculatum Mayr is an insect of economic interest in Mexico, since its larvae are extracted for human consumption.Objective: We aimed to estimate the density of L. apiculatum nests and to identify habitat variables associated with the presence of the insect in scrubland vegetation in north-central area of Mexico. Materials and methods: The coordinates of 201 nests and a vegetation layer were used to create a distribution map of L. apiculatum in crassicule scrub, desert microphyll scrub and rosetophyll scrub. The density of nests was estimated in 27 transects of 200 m, on which circular plots were located in which 19 habitat variables were measured. The association between these and the presence of nests was determined with a canonical correspondence analysis.Results and discussion: Crassicule scrub had the highest density of nests with 4.8 nests center dot ha-1, while in the desert microphyll scrub and rosetophyll scrub had 2.2 and 2.3 nests center dot ha-1. The presence of nests is associated with slope direction (northwest), rock, bare soil, and soil type (eutric leptosol + lithic leptosol [medium texture]), but not with the presence of agaves. It is likely that the occurrence of nests is explained by the availability of resources by vegetation type. Conclusions: Nest density is heterogeneous depending on the type of vegetation. The ecological information collected from L. apiculatum is relevant and useful to conduct future experiments with artificial nests that contribute to sustainable use in the north-central region of Mexico.


CRUZ-LABANA, JD, TARANGO-ARÁMBULA, LA, ALCÁNTARA-CARBAJAL, JL, UGALDE-LEZAMA, S, DELGADO-ALVARADO, A and CROSBY-GALVÁN, MM, 2023b. Nest density of the “escamolera” ant (Liometopum apiculatum Mayr) and its relationship with scrubland habitat. REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE CIENCIAS FORESTALES Y DEL AMBIENTE. September 2023. Vol. 29, no. 3, p. 45–45. [Resumen]

Introduction: The ant Liometopum apiculatum Mayr is an insect of economic interest in Mexico, since its larvae are extracted for human consumption.Objective: We aimed to estimate the density of L. apiculatum nests and to identify habitat variables associated with the presence of the insect in scrubland vegetation in north-central area of Mexico.Materials and methods: The coordinates of 201 nests and a vegetation layer were used to create a distribution map of L. apiculatum in crassicule scrub, desert microphyll scrub and rosetophyll scrub. The density of nests was estimated in 27 transects of 200 m, on which circular plots were located in which 19 habitat variables were measured. The association between these and the presence of nests was determined with a canonical correspondence analysis.Results and discussion: Crassicule scrub had the highest density of nests with 4.8 nests center dot ha-1, while in the desert microphyll scrub and rosetophyll scrub had 2.2 and 2.3 nests center dot ha-1. The presence of nests is associated with slope direction (northwest), rock, bare soil, and soil type (eutric leptosol + lithic leptosol [medium texture]), but not with the presence of agaves. It is likely that the occurrence of nests is explained by the availability of resources by vegetation type.Conclusions: Nest density is heterogeneous depending on the type of vegetation. The ecological information collected from L. apiculatum is relevant and useful to conduct future experiments with artificial nests that contribute to sustainable use in the north-central region of Mexico.



DELGADO-SÁNCHEZ, LM, HUERTA-ESPINO, J, AMMAR, K, BENÍTEZ-RIQUELME, I, AGUILAR-RINCÓN, VH, CORONA-TORRES, T and ROSA, RHS, 2023. Evaluation of ethiopian durum wheats for resistance to leaf rust in México. REVISTA FITOTECNIA MEXICANA. 2023. Vol. 46, no. 3, p. 239–246. DOI 10.35196/rfm.2023.3.239.

Leaf rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina E., continues to be one of the most important diseases of durum wheat in Mexico and the world. One of the most efficient ways to control the disease is through genetic resistance, which implies the need to identify sources of resistance, either in cultivated varieties, in species related to the genus Triticum, or in landrace genotypes from centers of origin or diversity. The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypically in the field and greenhouse wheats native to Ethiopia. Of 194 genotypes evaluated against the races of P. triticina BBG/BPCG and BBG/ BPCJ, 89 genotypes were identified as resistant against the BBG/BPCG race, equivalent to 45 %, and 91 against the BBG/BPCJ race, representing 46 %. Thirty-one percent of the genotypes remained resistant with the same degree of severity for both races, but 15 % of genotypes increased their level of resistance when evaluated with the BBG/BPCJ race in relation to BBG/ BPCG, whereas for 50 % of genotypes the severity of the disease increased. It is important that future tests to identify sources of resistance, as well as the follow-up of the incorporation of those already identified are performed with the BBG/BPCJ race, which is the most prevalent since its appearance in Mexico in 2017. The study allowed to identify resistant genotypes at all stages of development, as well as genotypes with effective resistance only in the adult plant. Of the genotypes evaluated, 98 landraces and five improved varieties were selected as resistant. These individuals could be used as sources of resistance in breeding programs to incorporate resistance to leaf rust.


ESPINOSA-VÁSQUEZ, G, GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H, LOMELI-FLORES, JR, ALATORRE-ROSAS, R, ORTEGA-ARENAS, LD, CARRILLO-SÁNCHEZ, JL, SOLÍS-AGUILAR, JF, GONZÁLEZ-CABRERA, J and VANEGAS-RICO, JM, 2023. Functional Response of Three Species of Chrysoperla Preying on Melanaphis sacchari. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOLOGIST. September 2023. Vol. 48, no. 3, p. 513–522.

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, is a worldwide pest that significantly affects sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. In the USA this pest can cause up to 100% yield losses, mainly when no action is taken to control this pest. In this study, the potential of three species of Chrysoperla for biological control of M. sacchari was assessed by comparing predation capacity and functional responses of the three species. Individuals of Chrysoperla carnea were collected in a crop of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico, while C. externa and C. comanche were obtained from a laboratory colony reared on cereal moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), and from a commercial planting of pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh), respectively. Our results suggested that C. carnea is a good option for an augmentative biological control program against M. sacchari in sorghum because the species had a mean predation capacity of 119.4 nymphs in 24 hours, and a type II functional response; they were able to locate and consume 80% of their prey even at the low prey density of 64. C. carnea had a high coefficient of attack (0.10) and a short handling time (0.10 hour) compared to the other Chrysoperla species.


FUENTES-HERRERA, PB, HERRERA-CABRERA, BE, MARTÍNEZ-AYALA, AL, ZAMILPA, A and DELGADO-ALVARADO, A, 2023. Content and Yield of L-DOPA and Bioactive Compounds of Broad Bean Plants: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Vitro. PLANTS-BASEL. December 2023. Vol. 12, no. 23. DOI 10.3390/plants12233918.

The broad bean plant contains L-DOPA, a compound that is essential for patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, little has been reported on other broad bean compounds that have beneficial effects on health. The objective was to evaluate plants of four Mexican broad bean varieties to determine the content and yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoids (TF), and L-DOPA, as well as to analyze the flavonoid profile and antioxidant (AA) and anti-inflammatory (AANTI) activity in vitro. Broad bean seeds were sown in the field and plants were harvested 20 days after emergence. The analyses were performed with visible UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. The variety Jos & eacute; Mar & iacute;a produced the highest yield of TPC (9.30 g m(-2)), TF (8.08 g m(-2)), and L-DOPA (5.64 g m(-2)) per unit of area. The highest yields per plant were obtained with the Rojita variety: TPC (0.25 g plant(-1)), TF (0.21 g plant(-1)), and L-DOPA (0.17 g plant(-1)). This variety also had the highest antioxidant (IC50 = 87.68 mu g mL(-1)) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 74.40 mg mL(-1)) activity, which was attributed to the L-DOPA compounds and to rutin and isoorientins, respectively. The flavonoid profile revealed the presence of rutin and isoorientins, which had not been previously detected in the broad bean plant.


GALVÁN-CANO, O, EXEBIO-GARCÍA, AA, PRADO-HERNÁNDEZ, JV and PALACIOS-VÉLEZ, E, 2023. Hydraulic analysis of the pressurized network of section 01 of the Irrigation District 001 at different operation scenarios. TECNOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS DEL AGUA. November 2023. Vol. 14, no. 6, p. 361–394. DOI 10.24850/j-tyca-14-06-10.

The modernization of the 001 Irrigation District began in 2004, currently it is still under construction and only the completely finished irrigation sections are operating. The project presents constructive and operational changes compared to the original, so the objective this study was to analyze the hydraulic behavior of the distribution network of section 01 at seven operation scenarios to identify the one most suitable for irrigation management. The demand for the 126 hydrants in the study section was obtained by modular flow, randomly assigning each one of them one of the crops of the pattern. The current crop pattern and current irrigation interval and zero precipitation were considered in all scenarios. The first three scenarios consider a shift distribution, with differences in the irrigation needs and in the precipitation rates of the emitters. The fourth scenario considered a mixed distribution by shifts and demand. These four scenarios considered an irrigation interval of 48 hours, irrigation time of 3.2 hours per shift and were simulated in the EPANET program. The fifth, sixth and seventh scenarios considered a distribution on demand, applying the first generalized formula of Clement with a guarantee of supply of 90, 95 and 99 %, respectively, with a daily irrigation interval, and were implemented in MATLAB. The results indicated that the network is not capable of operating with demand irrigation and that, with the current pattern of crops, a strict shift irrigation is a better option. Keywords: Irrigation networks, shift irrigation, on-demand irrigation, Irrigation District 001, irrigation scenario, networks hydraulic simulation.


GARCIA-HERNANDEZ, KY, VARGAS-GUADARRAMA, LA and VIBRANS, H, 2023. Academic history, domains and distribution of the hot-cold system in Mexico. JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY AND ETHNOMEDICINE. 2 November 2023. Vol. 19, no. 1. DOI 10.1186/s13002-023-00624-1.

BackgroundThe hot-cold classification system for things and concepts is widely used by many human groups in Mexico. We conducted a comprehensive review to understand the history, themes, and distribution of this system.MethodsWe analyzed publications based on field work in Mexico, considering publication date, research approach, study depth, and conceptual domains. We identified the ethnic groups that use the system and the places where they live. A map illustrates the geographic and cultural distribution of the system.ResultsThe hot-cold system has been documented in 101 academic publications spanning almost a century, particularly for traditional medicine and food. Initially dominated by anthropological studies, ethnobotanists have increasingly contributed to the research. The hot-cold system is utilized by at least 56 indigenous ethnic groups (81% of the total) and mestizos (whose primary or sole language is Spanish) across most of Mexico.DiscussionAnthropologists laid the foundation for understanding the hot-cold system, on which current ethnobotany builds. However, there are still knowledge gaps, for example on some domains (human beings, landscape) and on patterns by regions or linguistic families. The geographic and cultural distribution presented here is approximate, as group ethnicity is imprecise.ConclusionsThe hot-cold system is widely applied in Mexico, although some variations exist. Further exploration of understudied domains, and variations between ethnic groups and regions, would contribute to a comprehensive explanation of this interconnected worldview.


GARCÍA-SALAZAR, JA, RAMÍREZ-JASPEADO, R, AVILA-SOLER, E and RAMÍREZ-BARRAZA, BA, 2023. Is it possible to reduce food dependency of corn in México? REVISTA FITOTECNIA MEXICANA. 2023. Vol. 46, no. 3, p. 229–238. DOI 10.35196/rfm.2023.3.229.

Over the last three decades, the grain food security policy in Mexico has taken advantage of low international prices in the world market and has allowed an increasing percentage of consumption to be supplied with imports. In the case of corn (Zea mays L.), in 2021 imports of 17.4 million tons placed the food dependence index (FDI) at 38.8 %. With the aim of analyzing the possibility of reducing food dependence of corn, four scenarios were devised to determine the necessary increase in yield and harvested area that would allow to reduce FDI to 25 %. Information on corn consumption, imports, exports, production, planted area and yield (in irrigation, rainfed and production cycle) in 2021 was used, and a corn production function in the rainfed zones was estimated with data at the state level. Results indicated that an increase in yield from 2.57 to 3.32 t ha-1 in the rainfed areas of the Spring-Summer cycle and the modernization of 500 thousand ha with irrigation systems (technified and non-technified) could reduce food dependency to 25 %. Given the risk in the future of a likely increase in international corn prices, which would make it increasingly difficult to achieve food security, it is recommended that the Mexican State implement the necessary measures to increase domestic production and reduce food dependency.


GÓMEZ-SALGADO, MDH, BELTRÁN-GÓMEZ, J, DÍAZ-NUÑEZ, JL, RIVERA-CHÁVEZ, JA, GARCÍA-CONTRERAS, R, ESTRADA-VELASCO, AY, QUEZADA, H, BELLO, CAS and CASTILLO-JUÁREZ, I, 2024. Efficacy of a Mexican folk remedy containing cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl) for the treatment of burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY. 30 January 2024. Vol. 319. DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2023.117305.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens) stem bark has been used to heal wounds and counteract microbial infections since pre-Hispanic times. However, its effect in treating infected burns remains unclear.Study objectives: To determine the antipathogenic capacity of a folk remedy (FR) containing cuachalalate stem bark to treat lesions caused by thermal damage and bacterial infection.Materials and methods: The antipathogenic capacity of the hexanic extract (HE) and FR was evaluated in a burned mouse model infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Second to third-degree burns were induced with 95 degrees C water in CD1 mice in similar ratios of males to females. The mice were randomly grouped into non-inoculated (Group 1) and P. aeruginosa inoculated. The latter were divided into untreated infection (Group 2) and infection topically treated with HE (Group 3), silver sulfadiazine (Group 4), and tween 80 (Group 5). In the case of FR, the lesions were washed with an aqueous extract (AE) and applied powdered stem bark (Group 6). Animal survival, establishment of the bacteria in the lesions, and systemic dispersion were determined. In addition, histopathological analysis was performed. The chemical composition of the AE was analyzed through molecular networking analysis, and the antivirulence capacity was determined through the inhibition of pyocyanin production and caseinolytic activity.Results: Only the FR showed antipathogenic activity and increased animal survival by 50% by reducing the systemic dispersion of P. aeruginosa. In addition, it stimulated the formation of granulation tissue and the generation of new blood vessels. The AE did not show bactericidal activity but reduced bacterial virulence, and glycosylated flavonoids and catechins were identified as its main constituents.Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to validating the effectiveness of a popular remedy containing cuachalalate stem bark for treating burns infected with P. aeruginosa.


GONZÁLEZ-GARZÓN, AC, RAMÓN-UGALDE, JP, AMBRÍZ-GARCÍA, DA, VAZQUEZ-AVENDAÑO, JR, HERNÁNDEZ-PICHARDO, JE, RODRÍGUEZ-SUASTEGUI, JL, CORTEZ-ROMERO, C and NAVARRO-MALDONADO, MD, 2023. Resveratrol Reduces ROS by Increasing GSH in Vitrified Sheep Embryos. ANIMALS. December 2023. Vol. 13, no. 23. DOI 10.3390/ani13233602.

The in vitro production and cryopreservation of mammalian embryos generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to conditions of the system that can overcome their antioxidant protection. Resveratrol is an antioxidant used in in vitro systems to improve blastocyst rates, but its effect on antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH) in embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) after vitrification has not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on the in vitro maturation medium (IVM) of sheep oocytes (Ovis aries) on the levels of ROS and GSH in embryos produced by IVF subjected to vitrification. Resveratrol was added at 0 mu M, 0.25 mu M, 0.5 mu M, and 1 mu M during oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM). Matured oocytes were fertilized with thawed ram sperm. Embryos were cultured in sequential media until blastocysts, were then vitrified for 24 h, and, after heating, they were stained with DCFH-DA (2 ’,7 ’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) to determine the presence of ROS and with Cell Tracker Blue (R) for the presence of GSH. The quantitative values of ROS and GSH were obtained through the Image J image processor. The results showed that resveratrol increased GSH and decreased ROS production (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that its use in sheep oocytes during IVM has a beneficial effect on embryos produced by IVF subjected to vitrification by decreasing reactive oxygen species levels and facilitating the generation of embryo antioxidant enzymes like glutathione.


GUZMÁN-SANTIAGO, JC, SANTOS-POSADAS, HMD, ANGELES-PÉREZ, G, VARGAS-LARRETA, B, GÓMEZ-CÁRDENAS, M, RODRÍGUEZ-ORTIZ, G and CORONA-NÚÑEZ, RO, 2023. Effect of climate change on the distribution of temperate climate species in Oaxaca, México. BOTANICAL SCIENCES. 6 December 2023. DOI 10.17129/botsci.3355.

Background: Climate change is becoming more evident, and distribution models are useful tools to predict the effect it might cause on biodiversity.Hypotheses: Under climate change scenarios, temperate forests species of the genus Pinus and Quercus will undergo reductions in their distribution area and changes in their spatial pattern.Studied species: Arbutus xalapensis, Clethra mexicana, Pinus devoniana, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus teocote, Quercus acutifolia, Quercus castanea, Quercus crassifolia, Quercus elliptica, Quercus magnoliifolia and Quercus rugosa. Study site: Oaxaca Methods: Two scenarios were constructed, an optimistic one (SSP-1 and RCP 2-6) and a pessimistic one (SSP-5 and RCP 8.5) for the years 2030 and 2090. A total of 1,383 records and eight bioclimatic variables were used, along with seven learning algorithms, evaluated using ROC and TSS metrics.Results: An ensemble model was obtained, in which the most important contributing variables were precipitation of the wettest quarter, mean annual temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month and annual temperature range. The species that showed the highest ROC values were Clethra mexicana (0.91) and Arbutus xalapensis (0.89) with TSS values of 0.68 and 0.60, respectively.Conclusions: Regardless of the scenario, by the year 2090 all species of Pinus and Quercus will reduce their potential distribution. Therefore, it is urgent to establish conservation policies.


HAUBROCK, PJ, CUTHBERT, RN, BALZANI, P, BRISKI, E, CANO-BARBACIL, C, DE SANTIS, V, HUDGINS, EJ, KOUBA, A, MACEDO, RL, KOURANTIDOU, M, RENAULT, D, RICO-SANCHEZ, AE, SOTO, I, TOUTAIN, M, TRICARICO, E and TARKAN, AS, 2023. Discrepancies between non-native and invasive species classifications. BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS. 25 October 2023. DOI 10.1007/s10530-023-03184-3.

Biological invasions pose a growing threat to ecosystems, biodiversity, and socio-economic interests. In the European Union, the introduction of non-native species through trade, tourism, and other pathways has led to unintended consequences. Among these non-native species, a subset exhibits negative impacts and is commonly referred to as “invasive”. However, the number of non-native species and the proportion considered invasive vary across different member states of the European Union. Classifications and definitions of invasive species also differ among countries potentially leading to an underrepresentation. Here, we use Germany as a case study to highlight gaps in invasive species classifications. The number of non-native species reported as invasive in Germany remains low (similar to 14%) compared to other European Union member states (similar to 22%), despite Germany’s strong economy, significant research investments, and well-established trade networks. This disparities may be attributed to complex and multifaceted factors, encompassing differences in classifications, variations in research effort and focus, and diverse national priorities. We further propose that the impacts of non-native species on resources and biodiversity may be more likely to be overlooked, principally in large economies reliant on international trade, such as Germany. This oversight could negatively affect conservation efforts and funding for research aimed at improving understanding invasive species threats. We suggest that this underreporting may stem from a focus on maintaining economic growth, which might have taken precedence over addressing the potential ecological and economic impacts of invasive species.


HERNÁNDEZ-ESPÍNDOLA, E, ORTEGA-ARENAS, LD, RODRÍGUEZ-LEYVA, E, LOMELI-FLORES, JR, SOTO-ROJAS, L and LÓPEZ-JIMÉNEZ, A, 2023. Toxicity of four commercial insecticides on Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae). JOURNAL OF THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR CACTUS DEVELOPMENT. 2023. Vol. 25, p. 153–166. DOI 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.481.

Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a pest of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in many regions around the world, and there are no formal insecticide toxicity assays. This study aimed to evaluate the lethal toxicity of malathion, lambda-cyhalothrin, spirotetramat, and potassium salts on D. opuntiae in laboratory and greenhouse assays. In the laboratory, using a potter tower, lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were determined on adult females. Under greenhouse conditions, on O. ficus-indica infested plants, the LC90 of those three conventional insecticides were evaluated, as well as the LC50 of potassium salts; mortality was evaluated 48 and 144 h after application in laboratory and greenhouse assays, respectively. D. opuntiae was susceptible to all insecticides; malathion was the most toxic product, LC50 120.4 mg L-1, lambda-cyhalothrin (159.8 mg L-1) and spirotetramat (756.3 mg L-1) followed. Using potassium salts, 8,970.1 mg L-1 were needed to achieve 50% mortality. The highest percentage of mortality (88.3%) in the greenhouse was obtained using the LC50 (8,970.1 mg L-1) of potassium salts and the LC90 of spirotetramat (11,567 mg L-1). Mortality caused by the LC90 of spirotetramat (77.3%) and malathion (66.8%) did not differ statistically; while the LC90 of lambda-cyhalothrin (11,427 mg L-1) caused 45.4% mortality, and it was the least toxic insecticide in the greenhouse assay. In this work, the toxicity of insecticides to improve their use against D. opuntiae is discussed.


HERNÁNDEZ-LÓPEZ, P, MARTÍNEZ-TRINIDAD, T, HERNÁNDEZ-DE LA ROSA, P, MOHEDANO-CABALLERO, L and GUILLÉN, MDG, 2023. Ecological characterization of trees at Molino de Flores Netzahualcóyotl National Park. REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE CIENCIAS FORESTALES Y DEL AMBIENTE. September 2023. Vol. 29, no. 3, p. 93–108. DOI 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2023.01.002.

Introduction: Trees in urban and peri-urban areas produce goods and services for society; therefore, it is important to know about their ecological characteristics.Objective: We aimed to determine trees’ ecological characteristics in the peri-urban forest at the Molino de Flores Netzahualcoyotl National Park (MFNNP) in Texcoco, Estado de Mexico.Materials and methods: A stratified tree sampling was developed to register tree species, diameter at breast height, height, crown diameter, percentage of live crown and crown density. Species richness and diversity were calculated using Margalef, Simpson (1-D) indexes and Santamour’s 10-20-30 rule; in addition, the urban importance value index (UIVI) was determined.Results and discussion: Seventeen families and 22 species were identified. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Schinus molle L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. represented 55 % of the sampled trees. We estimated 7 983 +/- 806 trees with a density of 163 trees center dot ha(-1). Diameter at breast height is 26.56 +/- 2.33 cm, height 10.52 +/- 0.6 m and canopy cover equals 48.2 % of the park area (4 819.88 m(2)center dot ha(-1)). Richness (<= 1.67) and diversity (<= 0.61) were low; the species with the highest IVIU were E. camaldulensis, S. molle and Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh. with 38.53 %, 13.89 % and 10.62 %, respectively.Conclusions: The tree composition of the MFNNP is similar to that of an urban forest, a situation that contrasts with other natural protected areas. Areas with very low densities were identified with potential to be reforested and could increase the diversity and canopy cover to provide greater protection to the soil.


HERNÁNDEZ-TORRES, H, ROMERO-NAPOLES, J and AHUMADA, CAE, 2023. Interaction of Eudiagogus pulcher Fahraeus, 1840 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Sesbania herbacea (Mill) McVaugh, 1987 in Southern Tamaulipas. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOLOGIST. September 2023. Vol. 48, no. 3, p. 575–580.

The genus Eudiagogus Schoenherr, 1840 (Curculionidae) is endemic to the Americas and currently has six species characterized by predilection for plants of the genus Sesbania Scop, 1777 (Fabaceae). Plants of the genus Sesbania accepted as hosts for Eudiagogus species and especially association of E. pulcher F., 1840, with Sesbania herbacea, 1987 were reported. Biological observations such as sex ratio and variability of the population in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico also were recorded, as was distribution, and male and female genitalia and adult forms were illustrated.


HIMES, A, BAUHUS, J, ADHIKARI, S, BARIK, SK, BROWN, H, BRUNNER, A, BURTON, PJ, COLL, L, D’AMATO, AW, DIACI, J, DORJI, Y, FOLI, EG, GANZ, DJ, HALL, JS, KEENAN, R, LU, YC, MESSIER, C, MUNANURA, I, PIOTTO, D, SEIFERT, T, SHEIL, D, SHOROHOVA, E, SISAY, K, SOTO, D, TANAKA, H, UMUNAY, P, VELÁZQUEZ-MARTÍNEZ, A and PUETTMANN, KJ, 2023. Forestry in the Face of Global Change: Results of a Global Survey of Professionals. CURRENT FORESTRY REPORTS. 13 November 2023. DOI 10.1007/s40725-023-00205-1.

Purpose of ReviewForests support most global terrestrial biodiversity and contribute to the livelihood of billions of people, but these and other benefits are in jeopardy due to global change. This leads to questions, such as how to address the challenges of global change in forest management, given the lack of knowledge and deep uncertainty about future developments. In addition, many of the impediments to implement adaptation strategies are unknown.Recent FindingsHere, we present an overview of results from a global survey of 754 forestry professionals (370 researchers and educators, 227 practicing foresters, 37 policymakers, 64 administrators, and 56 with other or unspecified roles) from 61 countries across 6 continents who were interested in global change issues. These professionals were asked about their opinion regarding three different adaptation strategies: resist, adapt, and transform. Most respondents agreed that the majority of global change factors will negatively influence the ability of forests to provide desired ecosystem services. Similarly, they agreed about major challenges when implementing adaptation strategies and specifically whether our current knowledge base is sufficient. These concerns were not limited to ecological aspects, but respondents also highlighted the need for a better appreciation of social/political and economic barriers, especially regarding transformation strategies. In addition, the response patterns, including differences due to economic status, highlight the importance of developing and evaluating adaptation strategies in a local social-ecological context.SummaryOur study demonstrates a widespread perception on the part of forestry professionals around the world, especially among researchers and practitioners, that many global change factors will affect sustainable forest management negatively, resulting in the need for active silvicultural adaption. The results also suggest potential barriers to different adaptation strategies, particularly a relative lack of information and social acceptance for transform strategies. Further, this study highlights the importance of social and political factors and the need to understand the general public’s values regarding adaptation strategies as well as how the influence of public opinion is perceived by forest managers.


INIGUEZ, JC, GUZMAN, LAB, GALARZA, MDCA, ZAMUDIO, DAC, WATANABE, KN, GALARZA, GAA and MEDINA, JFA, 2023. Potential distribution modeling based on machine learning of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. in Japan. GENETIC RESOURCES AND CROP EVOLUTION. 24 October 2023. DOI 10.1007/s10722-023-01739-w.

Species distribution models identify regions with ideal environmental characteristics for the establishment and proliferation of species. The chayote (Sechium edule) is a crop that originated and domesticated in Mexico; however, it is cultivated in different parts of the world due to its nutritional and pharmaceutical importance. The objective of this research was to locate the potential distribution of S. edule in Japan supported on seven machine learning models, to also determine which bioclimatic variables influence its distribution, and which are the most suitable regions for its establishment. Thirty-one occurrence points, elevation, and the bioclimatic variables bio1, bio3, bio4, bio7, bio8, bio12, bio14, bio15, and bio17 were used to infer the models. Hundred percent of the occurrence points coincided with the Cfa climate distributed in Acrisol (60.9%), Andosol (17.4%), Cambisol (13%), Fluvisol (4.35%), and Gleysol (4.35%) soil. The maximum entropy model (Maxent) model reported the highest area under the curve (AUC) value (0.93), while the generalized linear model (GLM) obtained the best true skills statistics (TSS) value (0.84); the super vector machine (SVM) model reported the largest suitability area >= 0.5 with 100,394.4 km2. Temperature-related variables were the major contributors to the models and the ones explaining the distribution limits of S. edule in Japan. The coastal eastern prefectures of Kanto, Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku, Kyushu, and Shikoku regions showed a suitability >= 0.5.


JARILLO-RODRÍGUEZ, J, CASTILLO-GALLEGOS, E and LÓPEZ-ORTIZ, S, 2023. Forage production in Urochloa hybrids under sun and shade conditions of Melia azedarach L. TROPICAL GRASSLANDS-FORRAJES TROPICALES. September 2023. Vol. 11, no. 3, p. 210–219. DOI 10.17138/TGFT(11)210-219.

Urochloa hybrids CIAT BR02/1752 and CIAT BR02/1794 were evaluated under full sun and shade in a Melia azedarach L. plantation (1,000 trees/ha). The study was carried in Tlapacoyan (Veracruz, Mexico), at 847 masl, in an (A)C(m)w<acute accent>(f) climate, with a mean annual temperature >18 degrees C, and 1,991 mm of rain/year. The grasses were established in March 2019, using vegetative material planted at 0.5 x 0.5 m, in 2.5 x 5 m plots. The experimental design was a split-split-split plot in three complete randomized blocks, with full sun or shade conditions as main plots, the hybrids as sub-plots, the harvest date as sub-sub plots and age of regrowth as sub-sub-sub plots. Dry matter (DM) yields per tiller, plant and hectare were measured at 8 and 12 weeks of regrowth, harvesting a 1 m(2) sample located in the middle of each sub-sub-subplot. Fresh material harvested was separated into leaves and stems, and dried at 55 degrees C for 72 h. The DM/tiller was affected by Age (P<0.0001) and Group x Age (P<0.0003); with Group defined by the combination of Condition x Hybrids. DM yield/ha was affected by Condition, Age, Condition x Age, and other interactions (with Hybrids, Date and Age of Harvest). DM yield/tiller was more affected by Condition than by Hybrids. Total DM/ha yield was higher under full sun (1026.8 +/- 72.6 kg DM/ha) than shade (505.3 +/- 72.5 kg DM/ha), and the same happened for leaf and stem yields. Hybrid 1752 outyielded 1794 (1026.9 +/- 72.7 and 695.3 +/- 72.7 kg DM/ha, respectively). DM yield/ha also increased with age of regrowth.


LAZARO-CASTELLANOS, C, GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H, ROMERO-NÁPOLES, J, ORTEGA-ARENAS, LD, EQUIHUA-MARTÍNEZ, A and OCHOA-ASCENCIO, S, 2023. Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) associated with avocados (Persea americana) in México’s main production areas, with keys for identification and natural enemies. ZOOTAXA. 18 October 2023. Vol. 5357, no. 2, p. 241–269. DOI 10.11646/zootaxa.5357.2.4.

Avocado orchards in eight avocado-producing states of Mexico were sampled to collect and identify the armored scale insect species (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) that attack the crop and their natural enemies. Sixteen species of armored scales were identified, 12 from the subfamily Aspidiotinae and four from Diaspidinae. A dichotomous key is provided for the identification of the 18 armored scale species associated with avocado in central Mexico. Forty species of associated natural enemies were also recorded, the most important belonging to Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, and Signiphoridae, and to Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. For each species of armored scale, brief general information on its distribution, host varietal preferences and natural enemies is given.


LEY-LÓPEZ, N, HEREDIA, JB, MARÍTN-HERNÁNDEZ, CS, CRUZ-LACHICA, I, MÁRQUEZ-ZEQUERA, I, MEDINA-LÓPEZ, R and GARCÍA-ESTRADA, RS, 2023. Identification and Quantification of Lipopeptide Homologues Induced and Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. FERMENTATION-BASEL. November 2023. Vol. 9, no. 11. DOI 10.3390/fermentation9110944.

Cyclic lipopeptides (LPs) are potentially promising in the agricultural, industrial and pharmaceutical sectors. LPs have a variable hydrophilic cyclic peptide part attached to a variable fatty acid chain. One limitation of these compounds is their low availability due to their limited production by bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify homologues of LPs biosynthesized by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS) after inducing the synthesis of these secondary metabolites using different inducers, including chemical compounds and inactive cells of Colletotrichum sp. Four homologues were identified in the iturin family (bacillomycin D), and the iturin homologue with the highest synthesis was the molecular ion m/z 1031.54, with 173.1 mu g mg(-1) crude extract. In addition, seven homologues were detected in the fengycin family (four of fengycin A and three of fengycin B), and the homologue with the highest content was the molecular ion m/z 1463.69 (fengycin A), with 3288 +/- 528.5 ng mg(-1) crude extract. Finally, five homologues were identified in the surfactin family, where the highest concentration was observed for the molecular ion m/z 1036.68, with 61.5 +/- 3.01 mu g mg(-1) crude extract. The highest concentration of LP homologues (iturin, fengycin and surfactin) synthesized by B. amyloliquefaciens was detected in the presence of inactive cells of Coletotrichum sp., suggesting that the inducing substance is associated with the inducer’s cell envelope and could be a single protein or a structure that includes protein components.


LI, M, PEREZ-LIMÓN, S, RAMÍREZ-FLORES, MR, BARRALES-GAMEZ, B, MERAZ-MERCADO, MA, ZIEGLER, G, BAXTER, I, OLALDE-PORTUGAL, V and SAWERS, RJH, 2023. Mycorrhizal status and host genotype interact to shape plant nutrition in field grown maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). MYCORRHIZA. 18 October 2023. DOI 10.1007/s00572-023-01127-3.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish symbioses with the major cereal crops, providing plants with increased access to nutrients while enhancing their tolerance to toxic heavy metals. However, not all plant varieties benefit equally from this association. In this study, we used quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to evaluate the combined effect of host genotypic variation (G) and AMF across 141 genotypes on the concentration of 20 mineral elements in the leaves and grain of field grown maize (Zea mays spp. mays). Our mapping design included selective incorporation of a castor AMF-incompatibility mutation, allowing estimation of AMF, QTL and QTLxAMF effects by comparison of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Overall, AMF compatibility was associated with higher concentrations of boron (B), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and lower concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and strontium (Sr). In addition to effects on individual elements, pairwise correlation matrices for element concentration differed between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. We mapped 22 element QTLs, including 18 associated with QTLxAMF effects that indicate plant genotype-specific differences in the impact of AMF on the host ionome. Although there is considerable interest in AMF as biofertilizers, it remains challenging to estimate the impact of AMF in the field. Our design illustrates an effective approach for field evaluation of AMF effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capacity of the ionome to reveal host genotype-specific variation in the impact of AMF on plant nutrition.


MANCERA-RICO, A, VÁZQUEZ-BADILLO, ME, CERNA-CHÁVEZ, E, SÁNCHEZ-VEGA, M and GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA, E, 2023. Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Activity and Germination of Corn Seeds Stored under Vacuum Pressure. AGRICULTURE-BASEL. October 2023. Vol. 13, no. 10. DOI 10.3390/agriculture13102035.

Warehouse pests cause losses in seed quality by physically damaging seeds, carrying other pathogens, and leaving residues of their consumption or their remains. Taking into account that warehouse pests have higher metabolism rates than seeds, in the present study, the viability of Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky &, 1855) insects and the germination of corn seeds were evaluated for 93 and 180 days, respectively, under conditions of a partial vacuum (0.26 atm (atmosphere)), hermetic sealing, and air exchange. The partial vacuum environment (0.26 atm) did not negatively affect the germination of the seeds over a period of 180 days and resulted in the mortality of adult insects from the 4th day onwards; it also completely prevented physical damage to the seeds. The hermetic packaging did not negatively affect germination, but the insects remained active until day 34, and there was severe damage to the seeds used for their sustenance. Similarly, the gas exchange packaging did not affect germination, but the insects remained active until the last day of observation (93) and also caused severe damage to the seeds used for their maintenance. Partial vacuum (0.26 atm) storage represents a practical solution in certain conditions, for example, the short-term (6 months) storage of germplasms at room temperature (24-26 degrees C); it can also be useful in the storage and transfer of grains, with the possibility of eliminating or reducing the need for insecticide applications.



MARTÍNEZ-MARTÍNEZ, S, RODRÍGUEZ-LEYVA, E, ARANDA-OCAMPO, S, SANTILLÁN-GALICIA, MT, HERNÁNDEZ-LÓPEZ, A and GUZMÁN-FRANCO, AW, 2023. Bacteria associated with carminic acid metabolism in the intestinal tract of three predators of Dactylopius opuntiae. ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA. 27 November 2023. DOI 10.1111/eea.13394.

Dactylopius spp. produce carminic acid as part of defence against predation. The average carminic acid concentration varies depending on the species, e.g., for prickly pear cochineal, Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell), and cochineal, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), it is 3-5 and 19-25%, respectively. Generalist predators such as Laetilia coccidivora Comstock (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and specialist predators such as Leucopis bellula Williston (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) and Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) require detoxification mechanisms, which could be provided by gut bacteria. We determined the diversity of gut-associated cultivable bacteria in these three predators and their ability to metabolize carminic acid. The bacteria were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In vitro assays were done to determine their ability to metabolize carminic acid. The greatest culturable bacterial diversity was found in L. coccidivora larvae and H. trifurcata adults, followed by H. trifurcata larvae. The lowest diversity was found in L. bellula larvae. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland, Enterococcus gallinarum (Bridge & Sneath) Collins et al., and Enterococcus casseliflavus Collins et al. in L. coccidivora larvae, Enterobacter spec. in larvae of H. trifurcata, Lactococcus lactis (Lister) Schleifer in adults of H. trifurcata, and Staphylococcus spec. in larvae and adults of H. trifurcata. Bacillus pumilus Meyer & Gottheil was only found in L. bellula larvae. In vitro assays showed that all isolates evaluated could metabolize carminic acid, suggesting they play an important role in the predators’ ability to metabolize carminic acid. Presence of E. gallinarum, which had the most efficient metabolism of carminic acid, might allow L. coccidivora to feed on the two Dactylopius species regardless of carminic acid concentration.


MARTÍNEZ-ORTEGA, J, LUNA-SÁMANO, A and GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H, 2023. New Record of Stenoma catenifer at Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexico. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOLOGIST. September 2023. Vol. 48, no. 3, p. 733–736.

This is a new geographical report of Stenoma catenifer Waslingham feeding on Persea schiedeana Nees that grows in areas of natural vegetation near small fruit orchards at Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexico. P. schiedeana fruit that might be infested with S. caternifer is sold in local markets. This report suggests implementation of phytosanitary regulations to reduce the risk of this pest establishing in pest-free areas where “Hass” avocado is grown.


MAURICE-LIRA, JV, ROMERO-NÁPOLES, J, LARA-HERRERA, A, PÉREZ-MORENO, J, FLORES-MALDONADO, KY, GUZMÁN-FRANCO, AW, GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H, BAUTISTA-PÉREZ, NI and VÁZQUEZ-CHÁVEZ, FA, 2023. Effect of atta mexicana wastes on the nutritional and microbiological characteristics of soil. APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 22 August 2023. DOI 10.15666/aeer/2106_55495564.

Ants are considered as ecosystem engineers due to their ability to modify nutrient availability for other organisms, promote microbial activity, and enhance energy flow. In this study, we conducted a chemical characterization and estimated the microbial activity of the fungal garden residues of Atta mexicana, as well as the soils directly in contact with the waste and reference soils that do not interact with the residues. The objective was to evaluate the effect generated by the residues on the soils where the waste dumps are located. The chemical variables evaluated included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and organic carbon (OC), and microbial activity was estimated based on CO2 emissions. Our results demonstrated that fungal garden residues increased the nutrient content of the underlying soils in the waste dumps, particularly the organic carbon content (291.86 +/- 58.6) and the concentrations of N (8.27 +/- 6.92), P (5.21 +/- 5.4), and K (15.19 +/- 5.5). Additionally, microbial respiration in the interacting soils increased by 7.03 +/- 2.35 times. The evidence gathered suggests that the waste dumps of Atta mexicana fungal garden residues provide ecosystem services that enhance nutrient availability and microbial activity in the soils.


MONTER-POZOS, A and GONZÁLEZ-ESTRADA, E, 2024. On testing the skew normal distribution by using Shapiro-Wilk test. JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS. April 2024. Vol. 440. DOI 10.1016/

The skew normal (SN) family of distributions includes the normal distribution as a particular case as well as a wide variety of skew densities. Because of its tractability and flexibility for modeling both symmetric and skew data sets, the SN distribution has plenty of applications in finance, diverse engineering fields and medicine, among others. In this paper, a data transformation to approximately normal variables is used for testing the null hypothesis that a random sample follows a SN distribution with unknown parameters. Formulae obtained by interpolation methods are provided for approximating the critical values of the proposed procedure for a range of sample sizes, avoiding the use of tables and/or resampling methods. The test preserves the nominal test size and turns out to be competitive in terms of power against existing tests for the same problem. Several data sets are considered in order to illustrate the plausibility of the SN distribution for modeling the probability behavior of real data.


MONTOYA-GARCÍA, CO, GARCÍA-MATEOS, R, BECERRA-MARTÍNEZ, E, TOLEDO-AGUILAR, R, VOLKE-HALLER, VH and MAGDALENO-VILLAR, JJ, 2023. Bioactive compounds of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) according to the production system: A review. SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE. 27 January 2023. Vol. 308. DOI 10.1016/j.scienta.2022.111584.

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous plant consumed in Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, the Philippines, China, North Africa, Australia, the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. Purslane contains nutraceutical compounds that can be potentiated based on biotic and abiotic stress practices. It provides substantial contributions of minerals, polysaccharides, fatty acids, proteins, alkaloids, terpenoids, ste-rols, phenols, flavonoids, and vitamins, which together or individually provide neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, anticancer, and anticholinesterase properties. The preference for foods with high nutraceutical value, which provide benefits to human health and contribute to the prevention of diseases, mainly chronic-degenerative diseases, is increasing. In this review, the information regarding the effects of crop management on the chemical composition, medicinal effects, and new functional compounds with techniques based on metabolomics is updated. Under adverse edaphoclimatic conditions, an increase in nutraceutical compounds has been observed, which represents a production alternative given its nutritional and commercial value. Metabolomics techniques based on H-1 NMR have helped elucidate the metabolome of purslane under specific growth conditions (stress, hydroponics, open field, and controlled), with reports of new compounds from the groups of lignans, flavonoids, homoisoflavonoids, homoisoflavones, amide glycosides, alkaloids, amide and isoindole alkaloids, and phenolic alkaloids such as oleraceins; this has broad-ened the potential food and medicinal panorama of this plant.


MORENO-MEJIA, A, CÓRDOVA-NIETO, C, LAHUATTE, PF, CAUSTON, CE, CARRASCO, JMV, ROSAS-SAITO, G, INZUNZA, ER, YAR, JE and PEREZ-STAPLES, D, 2023. Reproductive system and activity patterns of Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae). ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 30 November 2023. DOI 10.1093/aesa/saad036.

Philornis downsi (Dodge & Aitken), the avian vampire fly, is the main threat to land bird conservation in the Galapagos Islands. However, very little is known about the reproductive morphology, physiology, and behavior of P. downsi adults impeding progress on developing effective methods for its control. Here, we provide the first preliminary description of the female and male reproductive systems of a Philornis species and compare the activity of lab-reared and wild flies. In mature females, the accessory glands are connected from the common oviduct toward the ovaries, and there are 3 spermathecae (1 double and 1 singlet). For males, we found 2 peanut-shaped testes, one possible accessory gland, an apodeme, and an aedeagus. Both wild and lab-reared individuals had similar patterns of movement, although lab-reared adults were more mobile at dusk. We observed higher locomotion in the morning and dusk with a lull at midday, and increased activity as flies aged from 1 to 10 days. Females became more active during the morning at 10 days of age compared to males. Knowledge on the morphology of P. downsi’s reproductive system will give us a better understanding of its reproductive physiology and will aid in efforts at establishing a self-reproducing colony. Mobility trials can be used as an easy and practical quality control method, as well as providing essential information on peak activity times, which may be related to foraging in the morning for females and sexual activity and host searching at dusk. Graphical Abstract


MUNGUÍA-AMECA, G, ORTEGA-CERRILLA, ME, HERRERA-HARO, JG, BÁRCENA-GAMA, R, NAVA-CUÉLLAR, C and ZETINA-CÓRDOBA, P, 2023. Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation, In Vivo Digestibility, and Meat Quality of Pelibuey Lambs Fed a Diet with Ensiled Coffee Pulp. ANIMALS. November 2023. Vol. 13, no. 22. DOI 10.3390/ani13223462.

Coffee pulp has been included in ruminant diets; but until now, little has been known about how the addition of ensiled coffee pulp (ECP) affects the growth performance of lambs. This study explores the diet’s antioxidant capacity, tannins, and caffeine concentration and its effect on water intake, growth performance, rumen variables, in vivo digestibility, nitrogen balance, and carcass and meat characteristics of lambs fed ECP. Thirty-six male Pelibuey lambs were distributed randomly to one of three treatments (n = 12): without ECP0; diet with 10% ECP10, and diet with 20% ECP20. The diets’ antioxidant capacity, tannins, and caffeine concentration were similar (p > 0.05) for all treatments. The diets’ antioxidant compounds and the blood serum’s antioxidant capacity were affected (p < 0.05). Dry matter and water intake, body-weight gain, and feed conversion were not significant (p > 0.05). No differences (p > 0.05) were found in the rumen variables or the nitrogen balance. However, the in vivo digestibility of crude protein was affected (p < 0.05). Carcass and meat quality were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of ECP, except temperature and redness (a*) at seven days of storage, respectively. Including up to 20% of ECP in the diet of lambs did not affect the growth performance, rumen variables, or nitrogen balance; however, the antioxidant compounds of the diets, the antioxidant capacity in blood serum, and the in vivo digestibility of crude protein were different. There was an increase in the redness (a*) and lower temperature in the Longissimus dorsi muscle, keeping lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), water-holding capacity, and texture at seven storage days.


OCHATT, S, ABDOLLAHI, MR, AKIN, M, BELLO, JJB, EIMERT, K, FAISAL, M and NHUT, DT, 2023. Application of nanoparticles in plant tissue cultures: minuscule size but huge effects. PLANT CELL TISSUE AND ORGAN CULTURE. 16 November 2023. DOI 10.1007/s11240-023-02614-3.  

Reliable and efficient strategies for plant regeneration are the prerequisites for reproducible and successful propagation, conservation, gene transfer and enhanced secondary metabolite production in vitro. In this respect, treatments with nanoparticles (NPs) studied in recent years have successfully eliminated microbial contaminants from explants, with a parallel positive impact on callus proliferation, but also on the induction of organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation, in vitro conservation, genetic transformation, and secondary metabolite production.



ORTIZ, J, DUBE, F, NEIRA, P, VALERA, RRH, CAMPOS, PMD, PANICHINI, M, MARTÍN, APS, STOLPE, NB, ZAGAL, E and CURAQUEO, G, 2023. Comparative Study between Silvopastoral and Agroforest Systems on Soil Quality in a Disturbed Native Forest of South-Central Chile. AGRONOMY-BASEL. November 2023. Vol. 13, no. 11. DOI 10.3390/agronomy13112683.

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have gained recognition as a land use strategy to address food security and climate change. They involve intentionally cultivating trees alongside crops and/or animals. AFSs cover approximately 5% of the global forest area and promote sustainable soil conservation, including soil organic carbon (C) sequestration (C-SEQ). In some areas of Chile, AFSs are used to preserve the ecological value of native forests. This study evaluates the effects of two AFSs, namely, an agroforest for fodder production (A(GRO)F(RST)) and Silvopastoral (SPS), within a degraded native forest (Nothofagus obliqua sp.). The evaluation focuses on their impact on CSEQ capacity and soil quality (SQ), using soil quality indexes (SQIs) derived from 30 soil quality indicators (SINDs) related to physical, chemical, and microbiological properties at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm). The results for the total depth analyzed (0-20 cm) indicate an average C-SEQ of 6.88 and 4.83 Mg C yr(-1) and a global SQI of 37.8% and 31.0% for A(GRO)F(RST) and SPS, respectively. Among the thirteen SINDs that demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.05), five were associated with the considered depths (P+, Ca2+, S, ECEC, and Al-SAT), three differed between A(GRO)F(RST )and SPS (BD, NH4+, NO3-), while SOC, K+, and Mg2+ varied across all conditions (e.g., combinations of systems and depths), and beta-(GLU) and N-MIN differed in a single condition. However, almost all 30 S-INDs analyzed showed higher values at the 0-5 cm depth, indicating the positive effects of soil organic matter (SOM)/SOC additions. Significant interactions (Pearson’s correlation) revealed that SOC correlated with most S-INDs (e.g., N, NH4+, P+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, S, ECEC, N-MIN). These findings suggest that both A(GRO)F(RST) and SPS systems have similar capabilities in restoring the ecological value of native Nothofagus forests while providing conditions for productive and complementary use. This sustainable option offers opportunities for cattle production alongside ecological restoration efforts and provides a possible strategy to generate public policies related to the ecosystem services of agroforestry systems.


García Pascual, E, CHÁVEZ, MMG, VEGA, AF, Rodríguez Leyva, E, Méndez Gallegos, SJ, RUEDA, JAM and Bravo Vinaja, A, 2024. Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) control tactics: a bibliometric analysis. INVESTIGACION BIBLIOTECOLOGICA. January 2024. Vol. 38, no. 98, p. 13–29. DOI 10.22201/iibi.24488321xe.2024.98.58813.

The objective of this article is to identify the growth, control tactics, collaboration among authors, and emerging trends in scientific research related to the control strategies of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) through bibliometric indicators. In order to recover the relevant academic articles on the topic, six referential databases were consulted. The keyword used to retrieve bibliographic information was << Dactylopius opuntiae >> in the search fields: title, abstract and keywords. 1 212 bibliographic records were obtained, which were sent to the Zotero software, and subsequently re-viewed to discard repeated records unrelated to the top-ic, obtaining only 99 from 1848 to 2022. These records resulted in four bibliometric indicators using Excel and VOSviewer. The dynamic of scientific production has been more evident during the last seven years. Biological control, through predators and entomopathogens, was the most studied emergent research theme. From 1848 to 2000, on-ly 12 documents of scientific production about D. opuntiae control tactics were found; production has been increas-ing by a greater proportion from 2016 up to 2022. The most outstanding control tactics were focused on biologi-cal control and non-conventional chemical control using various products such as oils, plant extracts, soaps, and de-tergents. Finally, the most frequently mentioned research topic was << biological control >>. Among other conclusions, the most researched topics were biological control agents (predators and entomopathogens) and plant resistance, which stood out as the tactic that could be most sustainable.


PASTOR-MARTÍNEZ, UE, VELÁZQUEZ-MARTÍNEZ, A and GIL-VERA, JA, 2024. Effect of pruning in young Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. plantations of in the ejido Llano Grande, Chignahuapan, Puebla. REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE CIENCIAS FORESTALES Y DEL AMBIENTE. January 2024. Vol. 30, no. 1. DOI 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2022.10.077.

Introduction: The silvicultural objective of pruning is the production of knot-free wood; however, pruning can affect the growth of early-aged trees.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four pruning intensities in a sevenyear-old plantation of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham.Materials and methods: A randomized experimental design with 12 plots (four treatments and three replications) was used; a total of 48 trees were sampled. Pruning treatments were: 1) no pruning, 2) pruning of the lower third of the crown, 3) pruning of the lower half of the crown and 4) pruning of the lower two thirds of the crown. Growth and number of epicormic shoots were measured one year after pruning.Results and discussion: The ANOVA showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of pruning intensity on the variables evaluated. Pruning the lower third of the crown was the treatment with the least amount of epicormic shoots and the greatest increment in height, diameter and volume, while the most intense pruning (lower two thirds of the crown) had the opposite effect.Conclusion: More intense pruning negatively affects the growth of P. patula trees in early stages of development.


PINEDA-RÍOS, JM, CIBRIÁN-TOVAR, J, LÓPEZ-ROMERO, RM, HERNÁNDEZ-FUENTES, LM, SOTO-ROJAS, L, LLANDERAL-CÁZARES, C, GARCÍA-SOSA, PR and SALOMÉ-ABARCA, LF, 2023. Volatilome Analysis of Soursop Fruits for the Determination of Kairomone Components That Attract the Annonaceae Fruit Weevil (Optatus palmaris Pascoe). PLANTS-BASEL. November 2023. Vol. 12, no. 22. DOI 10.3390/plants12223898.

Soursop possesses the largest fruit size of the Annona genus. However, this species is threatened by the Annonaceae fruit weevil (Optatus palmaris), which can cause the destruction of whole soursop fruits. Recently, the potential of semiochemicals for the management of this insect is highlighted, and its aggregation pheromone has been elucidated. This pheromone works well only when mixed with soursop volatiles. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine specific kairomone components to potentiate the aggregation pheromone of this Annonaceae fruit weevil. This task was carried out via volatilome analysis of soursop fruits, which was correlated with the biological activity of the identified volatiles. The GC-MS analysis of aroma collections of mature soursop fruits and flowers, determined using multivariate data analysis, confirmed a volatile differentiation between these organs. The volatile variation between fruits and flowers was reflected in weevils’ preference for mature fruits instead of flowers. Moreover, weevils’ response to soursop fruits increased with more mature fruits. This was correlated with volatile changes throughout the phenological stages of soursop fruits. The two volatiles most correlated with weevils’ attraction were benzothiazole and (E)-beta-caryophyllene. These volatiles only evoked a response when mixed and potentiated the attraction of the aggregation pheromone. Thus, these two volatiles are active kairomone components with the potential for being used in combination with the aggregation pheromone of Annonaceae fruit weevils in field trials.


QUIROZ-MORALES, SE, MILLAN, LFM, PONCE-SOTO, GY, GONZALEZ-VALDEZ, A, JUAREZ, IC, SERVIN-GONZALEZ, L and CHAVEZ, GS, 2023. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains belonging to phylogroup 3 frequently exhibit an atypical quorum sensing response: the case of MAZ105, a tomato rhizosphere isolate. MICROBIOLOGY-SGM. October 2023. Vol. 169, no. 10. DOI 10.1099/mic.0.001401.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a widespread gamma-proteobacterium and an important opportunistic pathogen. The genetically diverse P. aeruginosa phylogroup 3 strains are characterized by producing the pore-forming ExlA toxin and by their lack of a type III secretion system. However, like all strains of this species, they produce several virulence-associated traits, such as elastase, rhamnolipids and pyocyanin, which are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). The P. aeruginosa QS response comprises three systems (Las, Rhl and Pqs, respectively) that hierarchically regulate these virulence factors. The Pqs QS system is composed of the PqsR transcriptional factor, which, coupled with the alkyl-quinolones HHQ or PQS, activates the transcription of the pqs-ABCDE operon. The products of the first four genes of this operon produce HHQ, which is then converted to PQS by PqsH, while PqsE forms a complex with RhlR and stabilizes it. In this study we report that mutations affecting the Pqs system are particu-larly common in phylogroup 3 strains. To better understand QS in phylogroup 3 strains we studied strain MAZ105 isolated from tomato rhizosphere and showed that it contains mutations in the central QS transcriptional regulator, LasR, and in the gene encoding the PqsA enzyme involved in the synthesis of PQS. However, it can still produce QS-regulated virulence factors and is virulent in Galleria mellonella and mildly pathogenic in the mouse abscess/necrosis model; our results show that this may be due to the expression of pqsE from a different PqsR-independent promoter than the pqsA promoter. Our results indicate that using anti-virulence therapy based on targeting the PQS system will not be effective against infections by P. aeruginosa phylogroup 3 strains.


QUIROZ-MORALES, SE, MURIEL-MILLAN, LF, PONCE-SOTO, GY, GONZÁLEZ-VALDEZ, A, CASTILLO-JUÁREZ, I, SERVIN-GONZÁLEZ, L and SOBERON-CHÁVEZ, G, 2023. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains belonging to phylogroup 3 frequently exhibit an atypical quorum sensing response: the case of MAZ105, a tomato rhizosphere isolate. MICROBIOLOGY-SGM. October 2023. Vol. 169, no. 10. [solo es resumen]



SANTIAGO-BALMASEDA, E, SEGURA-COBOS, D, GARÍN-AGUILAR, ME, SAN MIGUEL-CHÁVEZ, R, CRISTÓBAL-LUNA, JM, MADRIGAL-SANTILLÁN, E, GUTIERREZ-REBOLLEDO, GA, CHAMORRO-CEVALLOS, GA and PÉREZ-PASTÉN-BORJA, R, 2023. Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), a Potential Nephroprotector against Oxidative Damage Provoked by STZ-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats. PLANTS-BASEL. October 2023. Vol. 12, no. 20. DOI 10.3390/plants12203572.

Background: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, known in Mexico as the “tree of the little hands”, flower’s infusion is used to treat kidney failure associated with diseases such as diabetes. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the methanolic extract of its flowers on oxidative damage in kidneys caused by streptozotocin in rats. Methods: The extract phytochemical profile was performed with HPLC. Antioxidant potential in vitro was determined with DPPH and total phenolic tests; antioxidant evaluation in vivo was performed in diabetic rats administered daily via the intragastric route (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks; serum glucose/creatinine, food/water consumption, and urinary volume were measured. Relative weight, protein/DNA ratios and oxidative stress were measured in renal tissue. Results: The extract showed 20.53% of total phenolic content and IC50 of 18.05 mu g/mL in DPPH, and this was associated with ferulic acid, phloretin and alpha-amyrin. Both doses showed a moderate decrease in the protein/DNA ratio in renal tissue, and the same behavior was observed for total urinary protein loss and serum creatinine, while the best antioxidant effect was exerted by a lower dose, which increased catalase activity and decreased lipid peroxidation in the kidneys. Conclusions: Results demonstrated that C. pentadactylon methanolic flower’s extract improves renal function through antioxidant mechanisms during experimental diabetes.



Ancho (width) chile peppers have economic, social, culinary and cultural importance in Mexico and worldwide. This chile type considers divergent subtypes that altogether have not been analysed and therefore their morphological diversity has not been systematically described. The objectives were to describe the morphological diversity of ancho pepper landraces from Mexico, to identify groups of similarity and to define the traits with the higher contribution to the total variation. Eighty-six landraces of ancho chile peppers (red, “mulatos”, “miahuatecos”, “cristalinos” and ’huacle’), collected in six states of Mexico, and two commercial controls were evaluated in two localities, in a simple randomized complete block experimental design. We recorded 76 morphological traits. Statistical analysis included a combined ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, discriminant analysis, principal components and clusters. The morphological diversity in ancho chile peppers was mainly made up of fruit width, fruit wall thickness, stem diameter, corolla length, seed weight per fruit, plant height, stem length and pubescence. We defined four groups, which made it possible to differentiate ancho chile peppers of Puebla and the huacle chile pepper of Oaxaca from populations collected in the north and “Bajio” (midland) parts of Mexico. Ancho chile peppers of Mexico showed wide morphological differences according to the type of chile pepper and seed collection regions. The traits that contributed the greatest morphological diversity were fruit width, fruit wall thickness, stem diameter, corolla length, seed weight per fruit, plant height, stem length and pubescence.


TORRES, CAP, CERÓN, FG, BARRAGÁN, RJM, MARTÍNEZ, AP, CASTRO, MA and ARENAS, DAG, 2023. Sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas) as natural antioxidant on carcass yield and meat physicochemical characteristics of Creole chickens of Mexico and Cobb 500. TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION. December 2023. Vol. 55, no. 6. DOI 10.1007/s11250-023-03832-9.

Antioxidants are considered functional additives against oxidative stress since they avoid nutritional decline in the meat. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of sweet potato flour (SPF) as a natural antioxidant on carcass yield and physicochemical characteristics of Creole chickens of Mexico (CChM) and Cobb 500 broilers. In total, 210 chickens (105 CChM and 105 Cobb 500 chickens) were randomly assigned to three treatments: 0, 500, and 1000 mg of SPF kg(-1 )of feed. The Cobb 500 chickens showed higher carcass yield (hot and cold), breast, and breast fillet, whereas the CChM had higher thigh yield (P <= 0.05). The yield on the previously mentioned variables was not affected by the inclusion levels of SPF. The initial pH differed because of the effect of the chicken’s genotype and the addition of SPF, which was higher on Cobb 500 chicken and on those that were not supplemented with SPF. The birds’ skin that consumed SPF presented higher yellowness after 24 h (P <= 0.05). CChM manifested a higher dry matter and protein content and a lower content of ash and fat (P <= 0.05). In conclusion, Cobb 500 chickens present a higher carcass yield and its components, in addition to a less acid pH; however, CChM offer a higher nutritional contribution, whereas the 500 and 1000 mg addition of SPF increases the skin yellowness, which makes it an alterorganic as a pigment on broiler chicken production.


TORRES-MORENO, M, MORA-FLORES, JS, GARCÍA-SALAZAR, JA, RUBIÑOS-PANTA, E, ARANA-CORONADO, OA and ARJONA-SUAREZ, E, 2023. Determining factors of the adoption of technified irrigation in La Laguna, Mexico. TECNOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS DEL AGUA. November 2023. Vol. 14, no. 6, p. 122–157. DOI 10.24850/j-tyca-14-06-04.

At present, water resources are under more pressure in terms of quantity and quality, due to increased demand as well as inappropriate irrigation practices. The agricultural sector uses most of the available resource, so it is essential to make efficient use of it. The use of modernized irrigation systems is considered one of the tools to increase efficiency, however its adoption in Mexico is still low. The objective of this research was to determine the factors that affect the adoption of technical irrigation among farmers in La Laguna through a qualitative regression model (Logit). The data were collected through a survey applied to 139 farmers from La Laguna, Mexico. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.3 software. The variables included in the model used explain 85.3 % (McFadden’s R-2 = 0.853) of the variation in the adoption of modernized irrigation. The results show a significant relationship between the probability of adoption and the following factors: educational level, knowledge of government programs, technical assistance, and performance. A significant relationship was also observed between the net income obtained per cubic meter and the adoption of irrigation technology. To increase the adoption of this type of technology among agricultural producers in La Laguna, it is suggested to increase the promotion of government support, as well as technical assistance and education on the benefits of adopting this irrigation technology.


VERA, ICD and SUBBOTIN, SA, 2023. Two new species of sedentary nematodes of the genus Meloidodera Chitwood, Hannon & Esser, 1956 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) from Mexico. NEMATOLOGY. September 2023. Vol. 25, no. 8, p. 849–865. DOI 10.1163/15685411-bja10259.

Two new species of the genus Meloidodera collected in Mexico are described here: M. ferrisi sp. n. parasitising roots of an oak tree in the State of Mexico and M. tecoacensis sp. n. parasitising roots of buffalo bur nightshade in the Tlaxcala State. Meloidodera ferrisi sp. n. is characterised by a spherical female body covered completely by a dark thick cuticular layer, length/width of the female body = 0.8-1.6, stylet = 35-43 mu m and second-stage juvenile with average body = 340 mu m and average tail length = 35.6 mu m. Meloidodera tecoacensis sp. n. is characterised by the female having a spherical body covered with a yellow transparent material, length/width of the female body = 1.1-2.8, stylet = 20-33 mu m and second-stage juvenile with average body = 340 mu m and average tail length = 29.8 mu m. These two species were molecularly characterised using the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA and COI gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two new species represent a separate evolutionary lineage within the subfamily Meloidoderinae. An identification key for 12 Meloidodera species is provided.



VILLAVICENCIO-GUTIÉRREZ, MD, CALLEJAS-JUÁREZ, N, ROGERS-MONTOYA, NA, GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, V, GONZÁLEZ-LÓPEZ, R, MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, CG and MARTÍNEZ-CASTAÑEDA, FE, 2023. Environmental outlook to 2030 in cow’s milk production systems in Mexico. REVISTA MEXICANA DE CIENCIAS PECUARIAS. October 2023. Vol. 14, no. 4, p. 760–781. DOI 10.22319/rmcp.v14i4.6410.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental performance of cow milk production in small and medium scale systems in Mexico, through life cycle analysis with a cradle to farm gate approach, for the period 2021-2030. The established functional unit was 1 kg of milk corrected for fat and protein. The impact assessment was carried out with the OpenLCA 1.11.0 software, using the ReCiPe method, considering seven impact categories: agricultural land occupation (ALO), marine ecotoxicity (ME), human toxicity (HT), climate change (CC), fossil depletion (FD), soil acidification (SA), and water depletion (WD). Among the main results of the research, the production of cattle feed was identified as the chief contributor to environmental loads in most of the categories with percentages above 71 %, while on-farm emissions contribute to the environmental loads for the CC (28 %), FD (26 %) and SA (59 %) categories. A comparison was made between pessimistic, base and optimistic scenarios for the years 2021 and 2030, which confirmed an improvement in environmental efficiency in the optimistic scenario, the increase in production volume represents a decrease of 6 % and 5 %, respectively, in the assessed impact categories.


VIVEROS-ANTONIO, C, DELGADO-ALVARADO, A, BUSTAMANTE-GONZÁLEZ, A, HERNÁNDEZ-RUÍZ, J, ARÉVALO-GALARZA, MD and HERRERA-CABRERA, BE, 2023. Vanilla pompona Schiede (Vanilloideae-Orchidaceae): Morphological Variation of the Labellum in the Mexican Localities of Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco and Oaxaca. DIVERSITY-BASEL. November 2023. Vol. 15, no. 11. DOI 10.3390/d15111125.

Vanilla pompona is the third most important commercial species of the genus Vanilla, but the morphometric variation of its flowers is not well known. In orchids, infraspecific variation is expressed in the labellum. This study had the objective of analyzing the floral variation of V. pompona collections from the localities in Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco and Oaxaca, in Mexico. During the flowering period, we obtained 55 collections of V. pompona flowers, and the labellum of each flower was dissected. We used ImageJ to measure and portray 54 lines and 7 angles in these labella. With the data obtained, we performed an analysis of variance, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed significant differences among the collections and localities in the means of the lines of the basal, middle, and apical regions of the labellum. Also, six morphotypes were obtained, and we found that variation was associated with factors such as the environment, geographic barriers, and pollinator pressure. Moreover, we observed variation in flowering periods in one locality of Veracruz. We concluded that there is infraspecific variation within and between the collection localities of V. pompona in the Atlantic region (Puebla and Veracruz) and the Pacific region (Jalisco and Oaxaca), Mexico.


YAMAKAKE, TAK, 2023. Characterization and genetic origin of three maize races based on chromosomic knobs data. REVISTA FITOTECNIA MEXICANA. 2023. Vol. 46, no. 3, p. 219–228. DOI 10.35196/rfm.2023.3.219.

At present time there is general consensus that maize was originated and domesticated from the annual Mexican teosinte. The cytological results have found that the beginning of this plant occurred in five origin and domestication centers in Mesoamerica. Many researchers have studied the great genetic variation that maize shows in various regions of Mexico, but none has proposed the mode and place of origin of each of the Mexican races. It was though that through the analysis of geographic and racial patterns of distribution of chromosome knobs obtained from a larger number of accessions and plants per race could be known the origin and evolution of each of them. Fifteen accesions of the Chalqueno race, 22 of Conico and 19 of Conico Norteno, were studied trying to analyze 20 plants of each accesion. Groups of knobs (long chromosomes vs. short chromosomes, long arms vs. short arms, etc.) were graphically compared looking for distribution patterns that could characterize and evidence the possible origin of each of the three races. In general, results showed that Conico Norteno is characterized because it has a high frequency of large knobs, higher than that of Conico and Chalqueno, races that shared these frequencies with the medium-sized knobs but differ in that Chalqueno has predominance of small knobs. The characterization of the three races, along with previous information on the knob complexes, allowed to propose the genetic origin of each one of them. These results suggest chromosome knobs are important elements in the evolution of races in the genus Zea.


ZHANG, LY, ZHANG, L, PÉREZ-MORENO, J, BIN, L, ZHANG, FM and YU, FQ, 2024. Novel umami peptides from two Termitomyces mushrooms and molecular docking to the taste receptor T1R1/T1R3. FOOD SCIENCE AND HUMAN WELLNESS. March 2024. Vol. 13, no. 2, p. 1055–1064. DOI 10.26599/FSHW.2022.9250091.

Wild edible Termitomyces mushrooms are popular in Southwest China and umami is important flavor qualities of edible mushrooms. This study aimed to understand the umami taste of Termitomyces intermedius and Termitomyces aff. bulborhizus. Ten umami peptides from aqueous extracts were separated using a Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography. The intense umami fraction was evaluated by both sensory evaluation and electronic tongue. They were identified as KLNDAQAPK, DSTDEKFLR, VGKGAHLSGEH, MLKKKKLA, SLGFGGPPGY, TVATFSSSTKPDD, AMDDDEADLLLLAM, VEDEDEKPKEK, SPEEKKEEET and PEGADKPNK. Seven peptides, except VEDEDEKPKEK, SPEEKKEEET and PEGADKPNK were selectively synthesized to verify their taste characteristics. All these 10 peptides had umami or salt taste. The 10 peptides were conducted by molecular docking to study their interaction with identified peptides and the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3. All these 10 peptides perfectly docked the active residues in the T1R3 subunit. Our results provide theoretical basis for the umami taste and address the umami mechanism of two wild edible Termitomyces mushrooms. (c) 2024 Beijing Academy of Food Sciences. Publishing services by Tsinghua University Press.