sábado, 1 de agosto de 2015


junio 2015

Recursos y Servicios de Información 
Científica y Tecnológica  (RESDICYT-COLPOS).
Campus San Luis Potosí. 
Iturbide 73, 
Salinas de Hidalgo, S. L. P. 78622
Tel. +52(496) 96 30240 ext. 4039

Se incluyen 50 registros bibliográficos de documentos en los que participan como autores personal académico del Colegio de Postgraduados. 16 documentos fueron indizados en el Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) y el Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) de la Colección Principal del Web de la Ciencia (WOS), y 34 en SCOPUS. Algunos documentos que fueron indizados en ambas bases de datos se incluyen en el WOS sin repetirse en SCOPUS.

En la primer parte se muestran los documentos indizados en el SCIE y SSCI de la Colección Principal del Web de la Ciencia y en la parte II los documentos indizados en SCOPUS, ambos listados se listan en orden alfabético por apellido del primer autor.

Los registros bibliográficos se presentan de acuerdo a la norma ISO 690. La mayoría de los metadatos fueron cosechados directamente de los sitios web de las revistas, solo en los casos que dichas bases de datos no son compatibles con la extracción de metadatos, se obtuvieron de otras fuentes como Scielo México, WOS y SCOPUS.


AQUINO-RAMÍREZ, Martín, VELÁZQUEZ-MARTÍNEZ, Alejandro, CASTELLANOS-BOLAÑOS, Juan F., DE LOS SANTOS-POSADAS, Héctor and ETCHEVERS-BARRA, Jorge D., 2015, Aboveground Biomass Allocation in Three Tropical Tree Species. Agrociencia. May 2015. Vol. 49, no. 3, p. 299–314.

Resumen: Knowledge of forest carbon stores is fundamental to generating inventories that approximate real C stores. For these inventories, it necessary to have estimations of tree biomass. Allometric equations are tools for estimating biomass and its distribution in forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop equations to estimate total above-ground biomass and the biomass of structural components of trees in the physiographic region of the Sierra Madre del Sur, in the municipality of Pluma Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Mexico. The species selected for their relative abundance were Cupania dentata DC., Alchornea latifolia Sw. and Inga pzinctata Willd. These species were grouped using an additionality test; a regression model was used resulting in two groups. In the models fit for estimation of total above-ground biomass, the predicting variables were diameter at breast height and total tree height. Indicator variables were also included to define the effect of the group within the model. Models were fit by linear and non-linear regression, which resulted in high values of the adjusted coefficient of determination (R-Adj (2) > 0.98). This showed differences in the quantity of total aerial biomass between groups, a situation that was attributed to the specific density of the wood and to tree morphology. Biomass in the structural components of the tree (stump, stem, bark, branches and leaves) was estimated with a system of equations based on partition factors using SUR (Seemingly Unrelated Regressions) to fit the regression parameters. In the three species, the greatest accumulation of biomass was concentrated mainly in the branches, followed by the stem, bark, stump and leaves.

AYALA, Antonio, MUÑOZ, Mario F. and ARGÜELLES, Sandro, 2014, Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2014. Vol. 2014, p. 1–31. DOI:  

Resumen: Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970–1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010–2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

EEVERS, N., GIELEN, M., SÁNCHEZ-LÓPEZ, A., JASPERS, S., WHITE, J. C., VANGRONSVELD, J. and WEYENS, N., 2015, Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media. Microbial Biotechnology [en línea]. Vol. 8, no. 4, p. 707–715. DOI

Resumen: Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001–1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media.

GALVÁN-ESCOBEDO, I. G., RAMÍREZ-ARRIAGA, E., MARTÍNEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, E., REYES-SALAS, M., ÁNGELES-GARCÍA, S. and KOHASHI-SHIBATA, J., 2015, Morphological Descriptions of Late Oligocene - Early Miocene Spores: San Gregorio Formation, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Acta Microscopica Vol. 24, no. 1, p. 41–52.

Resumen: The San Gregorio Formation (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is part of the Paleogene and Neogene stratigraphic sequence in La Purisima region, Baja California Sur, Mexico. A borehole from this formation was analyzed with the aim of contributing continental and marine palynomorphs. This paper presents the results concerning to the continental palynomorphs, belonging to bryophyte and pteridophyte spores group. One bryophyte and eight pteridophyte spores were identified to genus level: cf. Camarazonosporites, Cicatricosisporites, Deltoidospora, Granulatisporites, Leptolepidites, Lycopodiacidites, Stereisporites, Undulatisporites and Polypodiisporites. One pteridophyte spore was identified to species level -Lusatisporis dettmannae-, which was the most abundant. We present systematic descriptions of the taxa recorded. These spores are associated to the Cloud Forest vegetation type.

GALVÁN-ESCOBEDO, I. G., RAMÍREZ-ARRIAGA, E., REYES-SALAS, M., MARTÍNEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, E., ANGELES-GARCÍA, S. and GARCÍA-MOYA, E., 2015, Descriptions and botanical affinities of Tubulifloridites Cookson 1947 ex Potonie 1960 pollen grains from the San Gregorio formation, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Acta Microscopica. Vol. 24, no. 1, p. 7–15.

Resumen: From the San Gregorio Formation (Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene), Baja California Sur, Mexico, 105.4 meter-deep borehole “B4” was analyzed. Among the continental palynomorphs, four Tubulifloridites taxa, whose botanic affinity is Asteraceae family (Astereae, Eupatorieae and Heliantheae tribes), were recovered and described. The four Tubulifloridites types were classified into three groups according to morphological measures, using k-means cluster analysis. Scanning electron microscope and light photomicrographs were taken. Descriptions complement the contributions made by other authors to this genus, pertaining to the Baja California peninsula during the Paleogene and Neogene and contribute to the geological history of the family.

GIESE, Gill, WOLF, Tony K., VELASCO-CRUZ, Ciro, ROBERTS, Lucas and HEITMAN, Josh, 2015, Cover Crop and Root Pruning Impacts on Vegetative Growth, Crop Yield Components, and Grape Composition of Cabernet Sauvignon. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. Vol. 66, no. 2, p. 212–226. DOI

Resumen: Complete vineyard floor cover cropping (inter- and intrarow) and vine root pruning were evaluated as tools to restrict vegetative growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with cover crop schemes as main plots and annual vine root pruning (RP), or not (NRP), as subplots. Five perennial grasses as complete floor cover crops were compared to a more conventional under-trellis herbicide strip combined with KY-31 fescue interrows. KY-31 fescue and orchardgrass each reduced shoot growth rate by >30% in 2006 and >20% in 2007, below that of the herbicide-strip control vines. Root pruning independently reduced shoot growth rates. The combination of cover crop and RP decreased dormant pruning weights more than did the additive effects of either factor applied alone. Pruning weights in 2010 were reduced 8% below the control by RP, by 15% by cover crop, but by 38% when both treatments were applied. Leaf petiole N concentration at bloom was ~11% lower in RP vines in two of three years evaluated, but did not differ among vines grown with different cover crops. Stem water potential (Ψstem) was not affected by treatments. Cover cropping did not reduce crop yield with the exception of reduced yield due to KY-31 fescue in 2006. Berry weights were slightly reduced by a RP × year interaction from 2007 to 2009 and by a year effect in 2011 compared to 2010. While complete vineyard floor cover cropping and root pruning were effective tools to reduce vine size and vigor, effects on canopy architecture and primary fruit chemistry were minimal and more influenced by seasonal variation.

GONZÁLEZ-CHÁVEZ, M. C. A., RUIZ OLIVARES, A., CARRILLO-GONZÁLEZ, R. and RÍOS LEAL, E. 2014, Crude oil and bioproducts of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) plants established naturally on metal mine tailings. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 12, no. 7, p. 2263–2272. DOI

Resumen: Previous research suggested that Ricinus communis may be used for soil remediation and oil production. However, the quality of the oil and bioproducts under polluted conditions need to be tested to be assured of their potential use in biofuel production with environmentally friendly bioproducts (cake, seed coats and biomass). Oil characteristics and metal concentrations in oil, cake (de-oiled seeds) and seed coats, as well as the shoot carbon content were analyzed. The oil contents of palmitic and oleic acids from plants growing in polluted mine tailings were comparable to those for plants grown under non-polluted conditions. Linoleic acid content was significantly higher in oil of plants from mine tailings, which enriches the fuel properties. Cadmium and lead were mainly concentrated in the seed coat, whereas copper in the cake. Castor bean oil had low concentrations of cadmium, lead, zinc, nickel, manganese and copper-free. Cake and seed coats can be useful for soil fertilization applications since the metal concentrations are below safety regulations. The biomass carbon was around 43 %, which suggests it may be used for biogas production. These properties make castor bean valuable for its oil and bioproducts even when growing at metal-polluted sites. However, agronomic optimization is needed in order to produce higher plant productivity.

HERNÁNDEZ-NICOLAS, Nancy, CORDOVA -TELLEZ, Leobigildo, ROMERO-MANZANARES, Angelica, JIMÉNEZ -RAMÍREZ, Jaime, LOBATO-ORTIZ, Ricardo and CUEVAS-SÁNCHEZ, Jesiis, 2015, Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico. Revista De Biologia Tropical. Vol. 63, no. 1, p. 23–33. DOI

Resumen: Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatropha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sesse ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jimenez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jimenez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we concluded that J. oaxacana requires special protection, and J. ciliata and J. rufescens were species under extinction risk. The conservation status of the plant communities inhabited by populations of Jatropha spp. was moderate, taking into account the rate of disturbance. The main factors affecting the habitats of Jatropha were livestock and human activities; the floristic composition of the surrounding plant communities has low richness. These results support the urgent need of conservation strategies to avoid the loss of important wild growing species of Jatropha populations.

JARAMILLO VILLANUEVA, Jose Luis, VARGAS LOPEZ, Samuel and GUERRERO RODRIGUEZ, Juan De Dios, 2015, Behavior of consumers and willingness to pay for quality attributes of organic meat rabbit. Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Pecuarias. Junio 2015. Vol. 6, no. 2, p. 221–232.

Resumen: The demand for meat products, particularly specialty value-added ones, is highly segmented among different types of consumers. In this research, consumer preferences for quality-related attributes (food safety, freshness, organic and price) for rabbit meat were analyzed to discover their potential market niche. Using data from households, obtained by personal interview with a randow sample of 197 people, was carried out a statistical descriptive and correlation analysis to identify potentially explanatory variables of the consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for the organic attribute. Preferences were measured using a five categories Likert scale. The most favorite attributes, in order of importance, were the organic, safety, freshness, and the price of meat. The “organic” attribute is highly preferred by 64 % of the sample, followed by safety. The reasons to prefer organic meat are health and social responsibility. The socio demographics variables schooling, household income from, knowledge about organic food, and the safety attribute were significant (P<0.05). This reveals the importance of income level and formal education in the consumer’s decision of paying a premium for the organic attribute. The price premium that consumers would pay per kilogram of organic rabbit meat was 15 % of the average price ($13.50 more per kilogram) charged to consumers.

LÓPEZ-UPTON, Javier, VALDEZ-LAZALDE, J. René, VENTURA-RÍOS, Aracely, VARGAS-HERNÁNDEZ, J. Jesús and GUERRA-DE-LA-CRUZ, Vidal, 2015, Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis. Forests Vol. 6, no. 5, p. 1598–1612. DOI

Resumen: Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán,  La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (&gt;0.35) because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns), ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration) and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation) factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

ORDÓÑEZ-VALENCIA, Claudia, FERRERA-CERRATO, Ronald, QUINTANAR-ZÚÑIGA, Rafael Emiliano, FLORES-ORTIZ, Cesar Mateo, MÁRQUEZ GUZMÁN, Guadalupe Judith, ALARCÓN, Alejandro, LARSEN, John and GARCÍA-BARRADAS, Oscar, 2014, Morphological development of sclerotia by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: a view from light and scanning electron microscopy. Annals of Microbiology Vol. 65, no. 2, p. 765–770. DOI:

Resumen: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a worldwide pathogen with a broad host spectrum pathogenic to around 400 plant species. Sclerotia formed by S. sclerotiorum serve as resting structures that secure fungal survival in soil for prolonged periods in the absence of a host plant or may help to overcoming periods of unsuitable growth conditions. In the present study, the morphological development of sclerotia was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy of fungal microcultures. Observations from microscopy indicated that, during the first 4 days of culture, the sclerotial primordial originate by dichotomous branching of apical hyphae and from the 5th day mycelial clusters were also observed, indicating the initiation stage of sclerotia formation. From the 6th to the 8th day, sclerotia turned from white to dark color, and water drops (exudates) were observed on their surface. The process of sclerotia formation ended at the 9th day when they were easy to detach from the culture medium and had a black coloration. All the morphological processes involved in the formation of sclerotia by S. sclerotiorum were observed with both light and scanning electron microscopy.

PÉREZ-LUNA, Adriana Isabel, GUTIÉRREZ-ESPINOSA, María Alejandra, ZAVALETA-MANCERA, Hilda Araceli, ROBLEDO-PAZ, Alejandrina and MORA-AGUILERA, Gustavo, 2015, Respuesta histológica a inductores de procesos morfogénicos en Citrus latifolia TAN. Interciencia Vol. 40, no. 5, p. 343–349. Disponible en:

Resumen: En México la citricultura es afectada por plagas y enfermedades, ocasionado daños en la producción. El mejoramiento genético tradicional permitiría obtener materiales resistentes en  cítricos;  sin  embargo,  es  necesario  identificar  germoplasma  con  la  resistencia  necesaria  e  identificar  el  hibrido  entre las varias plántulas nucelares que emergen de la semilla. Una alternativa es el desarrollo de cítricos transgénicos resistentes y para ello se requiere un protocolo eficiente de brotación adventicia. En este trabajo se estudian los cambios celulares e  histológicos  promovidos  por  precursores  de  fitoreguladores y activadores de división celular en segmentos internodales de limón persa (Citrus latifolia) desde las primeras etapas de morfogénesis hasta la formación de brotes adventicios. Explantes  establecidos  en  medio  Murashige  y  Skoog  suplementado con  adenina,  sulfato  de  adenina,  ácido-4-fluorofenoxiacético (4-FAA)  y  triacontanol;  fotoperiodo  con  16h  luz  y  30 ± 2°C; fueron muestreados para análisis histológico tomando explantes  a  los  0  (testigo),  10,  20  y  30  días  después  del  establecimiento in vitro. El  uso  de  tales  compuestos  modifica  los  tejidos del explante. En todos los tratamientos hubo formación de callo parenquimatoso proveniente de divisiones del cambium vascular. Los explantes cultivados en medio con 4-FAA produjeron un callo más pronunciado, con meristemoides formados por células pequeñas con núcleos prominentes y citoplasma denso, con distribución aleatoria. Estos meristemoides son potenciales formadores de brotes adventicios con citocininas y adeninas, respuesta que requiere mayor investigación. Se reporta  por  primera  vez  una  respuesta  morfogénica  en  limón persa promovida por 4-FAA y adenina, compuestos poco utilizados para la inducción de brotes adventicios en Citrus spp.

RODRÍGUEZ-BLANCO, M. L., TABOADA-CASTRO, M. M., TABOADA-CASTRO, M. T. and OROPEZA-MOTA, J. L., 2015, Relating nitrogen export patterns from a mixed land use catchment in NW Spain with rainfall and streamflow. Hydrological Processes. Vol. 29, no. 12, p. 2720–2730. DOI

The temporal variability in nitrogen (N) transport in the Corbeira agroforestry catchment (NW Spain) was analysed from October 2004 to September 2008. Nitrate (NO3–N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loads and concentrations were determined at various timescales (annual, seasonal and event). The results revealed a strong intra-annual and inter-annual variability in N transport influenced by weather patterns and consequently by the hydrological regime. Mean annual export of total N in the catchment was 5.5 kg ha−1 year−1, with NO3–N being the dominant form. Runoff events comprised 10% of the study period but contributed 40 and 61% of the total NO3–N and TKN loads, respectively. The NO3–N and TKN concentrations were higher during runoff events than under baseflow conditions, pointing to diffuse sources of N. The mobilization of TKN during runoff events was attributed to surface runoff, while NO3–N might be related to subsurface and groundwater flow. Runoff events were characterized by high variability in N loads and concentrations. Higher variability was observed in N loads than in N concentrations, indicating that event magnitude plays an important role in N transport in this catchment; event magnitude explained approximately 96% of the NO3–N load. However, a combination of variables related to runoff event intensity (rainfall, discharge increase and kinetic energy) explained only 66% of the TKN load. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

STAMATIU-SÁNCHEZ, Katina, ALARCÓN, Alejandro, FERRERA-CERRATO, Ronald, NAVA-DÍAZ, Cristian, SÁNCHEZ-ESCUDERO, Julio, CRUZ-SÁNCHEZ, Jesús Samuel and CASTILLO, María del Pilar, 2015, Tolerancia de hongos filamentosos a endosulfán, clorpirifós y clorotalonil en condiciones in vitro. Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental. Vol. 31, no. 1, p. 23–37.

Resumen: Los plaguicidas endosulfán (EN), clorpirifós (CRP) y clorotalonil (CTL) están catalogados como carcinógenos y persistentes en el ambiente, por lo que deben tomarse medidas eficientes de biorremediación para su degradación. Los hongos Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PC), Trametes versicolor (TV) y algunas especies de Trichoderma (TRI), Mucor, Fusarium y Penicillium pueden degradar plaguicidas. En la presente investigación se aislaron y purificaron siete cepas de hongos a partir de suelo agrícola, paja molida de trigo y trozos de paja de trigo. Las siete cepas fúngicas aisladas y tres cepas de referencia (PC, TV y TRl) se colocaron por triplicado, en cajas de Petri con un medio mínimo mineral contaminado con dosis crecientes de EN, CRP y CTL durante 18 días. Diariamente se midió el desarrollo micelial (DM) y se calculó el porcentaje de inhibición del desarrollo (PID). Los tres plaguicidas tuvieron un efecto adverso sobre el DM, en el que se observó una recuperación paulatina después de 72 h ante EN y CRP, mientras que CTL inhibió significativamente (P < 0.0001) el DM de la mayoría de las cepas durante los 18 días. En presencia de EN, las cepas K14S, PC, TV y TRI se recuperaron totalmente a los 18 días. Ante CRP, todas las cepas mostraron recuperación del DM desde el día 10. El fungicida (CTL) mostró los mayores PID, pero las cepas K8S, K14S, K11TP, PC y TV mostraron recuperación. Los aislamientos K12P, K8S, K14S, K11TP y las cepas de referencia PC, TV y TRI presentaron tolerancia a los plaguicidas en estudio por lo que pudieran ser consideradas para la biorremediación de plaguicidas.


Resumen: The corpus luteum (CL) may develop as a compact or cavitary structure. But it is unknown whether the morphophysiological characteristics of compact corpora lutea (CLsCom) differ from that of cavitary corpora lutea (CLsCav), neither if these characteristics are determined by type, wool producing ewes (oveja de lana - OL) versus hair ewe (oveja de pelo - OP). Therefore, in our study ovaries were collected from sacrificed ewes and 81 corpora lutea were obtained from OL and 81 from OP. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The variables evaluated were frequency, macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and production of progesterone (P4) in vitro, in 0.1 g luteum tissue, with or without addition of 350 IU of eCG. The frequency of CIsCav was higher (p <= 0.05) in OP (50.6 %) than in OL (35.8 %). The CLsCav were smaller (p <= 0.05) than the CLsCom. The P4 concentration in CLsCav and CLsCom of both types, with or without eCG, was similar (p>0.05) throughout culturing. The CIsCav from OP had fewer cells per visual field (19) and were larger (25 mu m) than CLsCom cells (25.6 and 15 mu m; p <= 0.05). Hair ewes had a higher percentage of CLsCav than wool ewes. The CLsCav were smaller than the CLCom and in vitro progesterone production of the two types of CL was similar.

VALLEJO-PÉREZ, Moisés Roberto, TÉLIZ-ORTIZ, Daniel, COLINAS-LEÓN, María T., TORRE-ALMARAZ, Rodolfo De La, VALDOVINOS-PONCE, Guadalupe, NIETO-ÁNGEL, Daniel and OCHOA-MARTÍNEZ, Daniel L., 2015, Alterations induced by Avocado sunblotch viroid in the postharvest physiology and quality of avocado “Hass” fruit. Phytoparasitica  Vol. 43, no. 3, p. 355–364. DOI

Resumen: Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) is an economically important pathogen that reduces the yield and quality standards of infected avocado trees. There are no reports on the effects of the viroid in the postharvest quality of avocado fruits. The present study has focused on three phenotypic classes: asymptomatic fruits harvested from vigorous trees (AF-V), asymptomatic fruits harvested from trees of regular vigor (AF-R) and symptomatic fruits harvested from trees expressing the disease (SF-S). The water loss was similar in the three fruit classes. The abnormal firmness condition, skin color and size reduction occurred only in SF-S fruits, which did not ripe uniformly due to reduced CO2 and ethylene production. The proximal analyses showed no significant differences in the variables analyzed, except for the lipid content and dry matter, which was lower in SF-S and AF-R fruits. ASBVd affects physiology and postharvest quality of symptomatic avocado fruits. In contrast, the ripening process of AF-V and AF-R fruits was normal and their physical characteristics and nutrient input were not altered, therefore, these fruits were classified as Supreme Quality, Extra Size (221-265 g) and Premium (172-210 g) according to the NMX-FF-016-SCFI-2006 standards.


ASCENCIO-ÁLVAREZ, A., MARTÍN-MEX, R., TUCUCH-HAAS, J.I., VALDEZ-CARRASCO, J., HUCHIN-POOT, E.G., ANDRADE-CANTO, S.B., GÁMEZ-VÁZQUEZ, A.J. and LARQUÉ-SAAVEDRA, A., 2015, Gall (Trioza rusellae Tuthill) insect identification in Brosimum alicastrum Swartz leaves in Yucatán, Mexico. Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente. 2015. Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 123–132. DOI

Resumen: The insect Trioza rusellae Tuthill (Hemiptera-Triozidae) produces galls on the leaves of the Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum Swartz) tree, species with high nutritional value of the Peninsula of Yucatan. The insect was isolated and identified from collections in the municipalities of Muna and Sacalum, Yucatán. Five to 10 years old trees were sampled selecting branches with leaves showing galls. The samples were placed in plastic bags and taken to the laboratory, and placed in entomological cages. Adult insects were collected using a manual vacuum, while galls were dissected to collect the nymphs directly with a brush (0001). The samples were preserved in alcohol (70 %) and in fixative formalin-alcohol-water (FAW). Nymphs and adult insects from the alcohol samples were mounted and observed on a stereoscopic microscope. The samples in FAW were processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). As a result, photographs were obtained and development phases of T. rusellae were identified by entomological keys.

AVENDAÑO-GÓMEZ, A., LIRA-SAADE, R., MADRIGAL-CALLE, B., GARCÍA-MOYA, E., SOTO-HERNÁNDEZ, M. and ROMO DE VIVAR-ROMO, A., 2015, Management and domestication syndromes of capulin (Prunus serotina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh) in communities of the state of Tlaxcala. Agrociencia. 2015. Vol. 49, no. 2, p. 189–204.

Resumen: There are 5000 to 7000 species of plants in Mexico that are domesticated or in some previous stage of evolution. One example is the “capulín” Prunus serotina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh (wild black cherry, mountain black cherry or rum cherry). The capulín has been classified as domesticated, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of selection and intervention that have led to this degree of management. The objective of this study was to describe ethnobotanical aspects related to use, recognition of variation and management to evaluate the effect of these processes on this black cherry. The study was conducted in four communities of the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, where consumption of capulín seed is documented. Field information was obtained through open and closed interviews and participative observation in 1998, 1999 and 2006-2007. Besides, variation in 32 morphological traits, seed weight and cyanogenic glycoside contents in the seed were measured. The data were analyzed with an ANOVA, principal components analysis and discriminant functions. The results show 1) the uses of the capulín are mainly consumption of the seed and the integration of the fruit tree in agricultural systems such as “metepantles”, home gardens and rainfed plots; 2) associated cultural aspects of recognition of seed, tree and fruit variation, as well as the description of the different forms of management and promotion or toleration; 3) a likely domestication process via seed, observed in the significant differences in the characteristics of this structure and in the diverse forms of management: cultivation, promotion and tolerance. The cultivated individuals have larger round seeds with a thicker endocarp, which facilitates the extraction of the edible embryo and a non-significant decrease in cyanogenic glycosides. Finally, the process of domestication was evidenced in its importance for the communities and their organization for exploitation of capulín in that region.

BARRALES-LÓPEZ, A., ROBLEDO-PAZ, A., TREJO, C., ESPITIA-RANGEL, E. and RODRÍGUEZ-DE LA O, J.L., 2015, Improved in vitro rooting and acclimatization of Capsicum chinense Jacq. plantlets. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant. 2015. Vol. 51, no. 3, p. 274–283. DOI

Resumen: In vitro conditions such as low light intensity, the levels of sucrose and other nutrients, and high relative humidity may cause anatomical and physiological changes that have negative effects on acclimatization of regenerated plants. The management of these conditions during in vitro culture could improve the plant ex vitro performance. The influences of light intensity, sucrose concentration, the nutritional composition of the culture medium, and culture container size on in vitro rooting and acclimatization were evaluated in Capsicum chinense cv. Naranja plants. The size of the culture container vessel did not affect plant growth. The best responses of the growth variables tested (plant height, number of leaves, number of roots, dry weight, and osmotic potential) and of survival and rooting were obtained with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 28 μmol m−2 s−1 and H medium with sucrose supplementation at either 1.5% or 3% (w/v). The combination of a PPFD of 28 μmol m−2 s−1 and H medium with 1.5% sucrose can be used for successful rooting of C. chinense adventitious shoots, to enhance the performance of the plantlets in the greenhouse or field and to reduce production costs. The factors studied during in vitro culture significantly influenced ex vitro growth. © 2015, The Society for In Vitro Biology.

BAUTISTA-MARTÍNEZ, N., LÓPEZ-BAUTISTA, E. and MADRIZ, H.V., 2015, Percentage Damage to Tomatillo Crops by Heliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Various Altitudes. Florida Entomologist. 2015. Vol. 98, no. 2, p. 790–791. DOI

Resumen: Heliothis subflexa (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a monophagous insect specialized in feeding on fruits of the genus Physalis (Solanales: Solanaceae). In Mexico this fruitworm is present in all producing tomatillo areas but at very different levels of infestation. The present study aimed to provide data on the damage percentages caused by H. subflexa along an altitudinal transect ranging from 660 to 2,300 m asl. Evaluations were carried out biweekly on 8 plantations located at various altitudes (m asl) at various locations in the state of Morelos. By random sampling of tomatillo fruits in 5 locations per plot, the percentage of damage was estimated. The results obtained indicate that this species is very damaging at all altitudes in the range of 660 to 1,320 m asl, whereas at altitudes progressively higher than 1,320 m asl, populations become progressively less dense and progressively less damaging, so that at the higher altitudes the pest is not considered to be a phytosanitary problem.

BELTRÁN-RODRÍGUEZ, L., ROMERO-MANZANARES, A., LUNA-CAVAZOS, M., VIBRANS, H., MANZO-RAMOS, F., CUEVAS-SÁNCHEZ, J. and GARCÍA-MOYA, E., 2015, Natural history and bark harvesting of the quina amarilla: Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae). Botanical Sciences. 2015. Vol. 93, no. 2, p. 38–126. DOI:

Resumen: Hintonia latiflora (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Bullock, the “quina amarilla”, is an American tree of the tropical deciduous forest which is valuable because its bark has medicinal properties. The main area supplying the commercial quina amarilla is the northern of Guerrero state, Mexico. This contribution reports bibliographic information pertaining to the natural history and harvesting in its whole distribution area. Also, it includes field data on the habitat, density, phenology, dispersal, architecture, harvest intensity, and commercialization in some populations from the upper Rio Balsas Basin. The results shows biophysical factors that are important for growth, establishment, and survival of the species. Phenology consists of flowering in spring-summer, foliation in summer, fruiting in late summer, and dispersal in winter. The dispersal is anemocorous and barocorous. Tree architecture is related to environmental factors and to bark harvesting. Density and availability of the species changes with site characteristics and the intensity of the harvesting. The commercialization involves three actors: gatherers, local middlemen, and regional traders. The historical prices of the bark to the consumers have increased, but considering inflation, really have decreased. The major threat to the populations of H. latiflora is harvesting intensity and careless practice of harvesting.

BENÍTEZ-PARDO, D., FLORES-VERDUGO, F.J., CASAS-VALDEZ, M., HERNÁNDEZ-CARMONA, G., VALDEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, J.I. and GÓMEZ-MUÑOZ, V., 2015, Forestation of dredging islets using two species of mangroves in a coastal lagoon of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Botanical Sciences. 2015. Vol. 93, no. 1, p. 165–174.

Resumen: The purpose of this study is on digging islands created with dredge material. A nursery station was generated in order to produce propagules of Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Tide amplitude, low energy zones, salinity, and mangrove zonation were considered for propagules recruitment within random experimental quadrants on the islands. Survival rates of A. germinans were 78% and 72% for plants with container and without container, respectively. Rhizophora mangle showed a 43% and 34% for the same parameters. Plants extracted from their natural environment presented a survival rate of 34[%] for A. germinans, and 21% for R. mangle. Avicennia germinans growth from nursery station presented 3.2 cm/month, while plants from their natural environment 1.5 cm/month. Rhizophora mangle showed 1.4 cm/month in comparison with natural environment with 0.8 cm/month. Results showed a higher growth and survival rate of plants from nursery station compared to plants from the natural environment. There was no natural recruitment during the study; therefore, nursery station mangrove plants should be used in artificial islands considering tide amplitude, natural zonation, low energy zones, and the hydroperiod. © 2015, Sociedad Botanica de Mexico, A.C. All rights reserved.

CANO-VÁZQUEZ, A., LÓPEZ-PERALTA, Ma. C., ZAVALETA-MANCERA, H.A., CRUZ-HUERTA, N., RAMÍREZ-RAMÍREZ, I., GARDEA-BÉJAR, A. and GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, V.A., 2015, Variation in degrees of seed dormancy among collections of chile piquin (Capsicum annuum var. Glabriusculum). Botanical Sciences. 2015. Vol. 93, no. 1, p. 175–184.

Chile piquin (Capsicum annuum cv. glabriusculum) consumed in México is usually harvested from wild grown plants. This activity might threaten the genetic diversity in this species. However, chile piquin germination has traditionally been difficult for intensive greenhouse sowing. The causes for such behavior are unknown. Accessions from seven production zones in the country and Southern USA were collected, and studied. Morphological studies determined there are no significant morphological differences or barriers among accessions that might prevent seed germination. An imbibition kinetic study showed no limitations for water penetration into seed tissues. Yet the seed germination rate varied among the 16 accessions (0 to 66%) with an average of 15%. Seed conditioning with AG3 at 5,000 ppm increased mean germination rate to 59% in 14 out of 16 accessions. Hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate did not increase germination rates of viable seeds, except on two and four accessions, respectively. This work corroborates that chile piquin seed germination is restricted by physiological dormancy that giberellic acid pre-conditioning can overcome with varying degrees among accessions. © 2015, Sociedad Botanica de Mexico, A.C. All rights reserved.

CASTAÑEDA-IBÁÑEZ, C.R., MARTÍNEZ-MENES, M., PASCUAL-RAMÍREZ, F., FLORES-MAGDALENO, H., FERNÁNDEZ-REYNOSO, D.S. and ESPARZA-GOVEA, S., 2015, Estimation of crop coefficients through remote sensing in the Río Yaqui Irrigation District, Sonora, México. Agrociencia. 2015. Vol. 49, no. 2, p. 221–232.

Resumen: Traditional estimations of evapotranspiration (ET) are based on the crop coefficient (Kc). This can be disadvantageous when precise estimations of crop water uptake are required in the Irrigation Districts. Using satellite images, it is possible to estimate vegetation indexes (VI), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). These indexes enable monitoring crop development and estimating precisely spatial and temporal Kc variability. The objective of this study was to validate the use of VI to estimate Kc and ET of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Río Yaqui Irrigation District, Sonora, Mexico. Validation was carried out with eight images from the sensors TM and ETM+ of the LANDSAT 5 and 7 satellites and measurements of turbulent flux with the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique for the year 2008. ET estimated from VI and measurement with EC showed a high degree of correspondence. For the eight images, the square root of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 0.69 mm d-1, the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) 0.62 mm d-1, the index of agreement (d) 0.91 for NDVI and RMSE of 0.64 mm d-1, MAE of 0.57 and an index of agreement of 0.92 for SAVI in daily estimations. It is thus concluded that VI allow to estimate spatial and temporal variability of the Kc and ETwith precision in extensive agricultural regions.

CHÁVEZ-VERGARA, B.M., GONZÁLEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, A., ETCHEVERS, J.D., OYAMA, K. y GARCÍA-OLIVA, F. 2015. Foliar nutrient resorption constrains soil nutrient transformations under two native oak species in a temperate deciduous forest in Mexico. European Journal of Forest Research, pp. 1-15. ISSN 1612-4669, 1612-4677. DOI 10.1007/s10342-015-0891-1

Resumen: Foliar nutrient resorption (FNR) is a key process in the dynamics of nutrients in a forest ecosystem. Along with other factors, FNR regulates the chemical composition of the forest floor and, consequently, the rates of organic matter decomposition and soil nutrient availability. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of FNR of two deciduous oak species (Quercus castanea and Q. deserticola) in the litter and soil nutrient dynamics, in addition to analyze whether the interaction between two species was positive (synergistic) or negative (antagonistic) through the mixed litter from two species. For this purpose, the nutrient concentration of green leaves, litterfall, litter and soil was measured, as well as soil microbial activity. These measurements were taken in isolated stands with the presence of one of the oak species and stands with the two oak species mixed. Quercus deserticola, with lower FNR, produced litter with a higher N concentration, which apparently enhancing microbial activity in the forest floor litter and increased nutrient transformations and soil fertility. In contrast, Q. castanea has a higher FNR and produced litter with a lower nutrient concentration. The microbial soil community associated with Q. castanea must therefore invest more energy in metabolic processes at the expense of biomass growth. However, forest floor nutrient transformations were more intense and soil fertility increased in areas where both species intermix; in this case, the latter species received the rich-nutrient litterfall of Q. deserticola. These results suggest a strong footprint of species traits on microbial activities and soil nutrient transformations. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

CUEVAS-CRUZ, J.-C., JIMÉNEZ-CASAS, M., JASSO-MATA, J., PÉREZ-RODRÍGUEZ, P., LÓPEZ-UPTÓN, J. and VILLEGAS-MONTER, A., 2015, Asexual propagation of Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente. 2015. Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 81–95. DOI

Resumen: The effect of substrate, type of cutting and indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration on the rooting of Pinus leiophylla cuttings was evaluated with the goal of multiplying progenies of half-sib families of this species, which have showed superior growth and positive response against Toumeyella pinicola attack. Two types of substrates (100 % perlite vs. a mix of peat, perlite, vermiculite at a ratio of 1:1:1), two types of cuttings (apical vs. basal) and two concentrations of IBA (0 vs. 10,000 ppm) were used. Probability and percentage of rooting, growth of cuttings and characteristics of the roots were evaluated. Results indicate that using basal cuttings is 3.5 times more likely to induce rooting of P. leiophylla than using apical cuttings. The treatment consisting of the mixture of peatperlite- vermiculite, a basal cutting and 10,000 ppm of IBA produced 45.3 % rooting (highest percentage), while the control only yielded 8.6 % rooting (perlite, basal cutting and without IBA). Interactions with the type of substrate showed significant differences (P = 0.05) in the growth of the cuttings. The use of perlite and application of IBA promoted a greater number of roots, particularly in the basal cuttings of P. leiophylla.

CUEVAS, J., PÉREZ-ELIZALDE, S., SOBERANIS, V., PÉREZ-RODRÍGUEZ, P., GIANOLA, D. and CROSSA, J., 2014, Bayesian genomic-enabled prediction as an inverse problem. G3 (Bethesda, Md.). 2014. Vol. 4, no. 10, p. 1991–2001. DOI

Resumen: Genomic-enabled prediction in plant and animal breeding has become an active area of research. Many prediction models address the collinearity that arises when the number (p) of molecular markers (e.g. single-nucleotide polymorphisms) is larger than the sample size (n). Here we propose four Bayesian approaches to the problem based on commonly used data reduction methods. Specifically, we use a Gaussian linear model for an orthogonal transformation of both the observed data and the matrix of molecular markers. Because shrinkage of estimates is affected by the prior variance of transformed effects, we propose four structures of the prior variance as a way of potentially increasing the prediction accuracy of the models fitted. To evaluate our methods, maize and wheat data previously used with standard Bayesian regression models were employed for measuring prediction accuracy using the proposed models. Results indicate that, for the maize and wheat data sets, our Bayesian models yielded, on average, a prediction accuracy that is 3% greater than that of standard Bayesian regression models, with less computational effort. Copyright © 2014 Cuevas et al.

DOMINGUEZ, P.A., PRO-MARTINEZ, A., NARCISO-GAYTÁN, C., HERNÁNDEZ-CÁZARES, A., SOSA-MONTES, E., PEREZ-HERNANDEZ, P., CALDWELL, D. and RUIZ-FERIA, C.A., 2015, Concurrent supplementation of arginine and antioxidant vitamins e and c reduces oxidative stress in broiler chickens after a challenge with eimeria spp. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 2015. Vol. 95, no. 2, p. 143–153. DOI

Resumen: Oxidation is a major problem associated with pathogen damage in animals. One-day-old mixed-sex broiler chicks (Cobb 500; n=624) were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: a basal diet [CTL; 40 mg of vitamin E (VE) kg-1 of feed and 1.5% Arginine (Arg)] or the basal diet plus Arg (ARG; 0.3%), Arg+VE (AVE; 0.3% and 40 mg kg-1 respectively), Arg+vitamin C (VC) (AVC; 0.3% and 1 g kg-1 respectively), VE+VC (VEC; 40 mg+1 g kg-1 respectively), or Arg+VE+VC (AVEC; 0.3%+40 mg+1 g kg-1 respectively). At day 14, all birds were orally challenged with 100 ´ the normal dose of Advent® coccidiosis vaccine (450 000 oocysts). Intestinal lesion scores (LS) in duodenum, jejunum and ceca were recorded, along with relative immune system organ weights at day 23. Plasma samples were taken before (2 h) and after challenge (12, 24 and 48 h) to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). Birds fed the VEC diet were heavier at 7 d (P<0.05) than birds fed the AVE diet. CTL birds had heavier (P<0.05) bursas than AVC birds; no differences among treatments for spleen and thymus were found. The jejunum LS was lower in the AVC and VEC birds than in CTL birds, whereas ceca LS was highest in AVE birds, and the duodenum LS was not affected by treatment. Birds fed the AVEC diet had the lowest MDA levels before challenge, but higher levels of MDA than birds fed the CTL, ARG or AVE 12 h after challenge. Before challenge ARG birds had higher (P<0.05) NO levels than AVEC-fed birds, but 12 h after challenge birds fed the CTL, ARG or AVE diet had lower NO levels than birds fed the AVC, VEC or AVEC diet. Before challenge AVEC-fed birds had higher (P<0.001) GPx activity than CTL, ARG and AVE birds, but after 12, 24 and 48 h VEC birds showed higher GPx activity than CTL, ARG-and AVE-fed birds. Although Arg, VE and VC, modulated oxidative stress during coccidiosis challenge, the effects were not sufficient to affect performance relative to the control diet.

ENRÍQUEZ-VARA, J.N., GUZMÁN-FRANCO, A.W., ALATORRE-ROSAS, R., GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H., CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR, A. and CONTRERAS-GARDUÑO, J., 2014, Immune response of phyllophaga polyphylla larvae is not an effective barrier against metarhizium pingshaense. Invertebrate Survival Journal. 2014. Vol. 11, p. 240–246.

Resumen: Previous research has uncovered that the cuticle of P. polyphylla larvae acts as a good non-immunological barrier against M. pingshaense. In the present study we investigated whether P. polyphylla larvae also show a similarly robust immunological response against M. pingshaense. Firstly, we estimated a median lethal dose (LD50) of blastospores to be injected into the hemocoel. Secondly, we injected the estimated LD50 of blastospores into the hemocoel of larvae to quantify phenoloxidase (PO), nitric oxide (NO) and antimicrobial activity as a response against fungal invasion. In contrast to a previous report that showed that M. pingshaense is unable to kill P. polyphylla after topical applications, here we demonstrate that: (a) 100 % of P. polyphylla larvae died when blastospores were injected into the hemocoel and (b) when injecting the LD50 into the hemocoel of the larvae, immune response did not differ with control. Our results imply that immunological responses do not protect P. polyphylla larvae against M. pingshaense infections. Thus, the cuticle seems a better defense mechanism compared to PO, NO and antimicrobial activity. One proximate explanation for our results is that blastospores are not detected by the host’s immune machinery. An ultimate explanation is that there may be a resource-based tradeoff between non-immunological and immunological barriers, in which white grubs may be investing more in cuticle at the cost of PO, NO and antimicrobial activity.

ESPINOSA-PÉREZ, E.N., RAMÍREZ-VALLEJO, P., MAGDALENA CROSBY-GALVÁN, M., ARTURO ESTRADA-GÓMEZ, J., LUCAS-FLORENTINO, B. and CHÁVEZ-SERVIA, J.L., 2015, Classification of common dry bean landraces from the south-center of México by seed morphology. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2015. Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 29–38.  Disponible en:

Resumen: Seed morphology of 75 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) populations from indeterminate habit (type IV) were evaluated. Seeds were collected in the States of México, Morelos, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Tlaxcala. Data of geographic zone, farmer’ name, locality, municipality, state, agronomical and seed management techniques, were gathered at collect time. Descriptive and classificatory analysis of principal components and hierarchical clustering based on Euclidian distances were undertaken using seed traits, in order to determine the relationships among populations. There were 13 groups of color and locales names used by farmers to distinguish the bean populations, where the most frequent classes were amarillo, ensaladilla, rojo, negro and vaquita. Length, wide, weight and volume of seeds and specific weight were the major discriminative variables with respect to the total variation, according to the principal components analysis. Seven phenotypic groups were determined by cluster analysis: two population groups came from Estado de México, one of big seed size and other medium one. Two groups of small seed were collected in Guerrero and Oaxaca; and three group complexes, the first included populations of Tlaxcala and Oaxaca, other integrated with populations from Oaxaca and Guerrero, and the third one grouped populations of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Estado de México, Morelos and Tlaxcala. Therefore, the seed traits supported the description and classification of the phenotypic diversity of common dry bean from the south-center of México.

GARCÍA-LEÓN, E., LEYVA-MIR, S.G., VILLASEÑOR-MIR, H.E., RODRÍGUEZ-GARCÍA, M.F. and TOVAR-PEDRAZA, J.M., 2015, Diversity and incidence of fungus associated to foliar diseases of oat (Avena sativa L.) in the highlands of Mexico. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. 2015. Vol. 41, no. 1, p. 53–56. Disponible en:

Resumen: The aim of this study was to determine the fungal species associated to foliar diseases on oat in the highlands of Mexico. During spring-fall seasons 2009 and 2010, a total of 815 samples of oat plants exhibiting foliar diseases were collected from 163 different oat fields. Fungal identification was based on morphological characteristics. Six different pathogenic fungal species were identified: Colletotrichum graminicola, Curvularia hawaiiensis, Drechslera avenacea, Passalora graminis, Puccina coronata, Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae. Whereas, that the saprophytic and weakly pathogenic fungi founded were: Alternaria triticicola, A. triticina, A. uredinis, Curvularia protuberata y Pleospora sp. The species P. graminis f. sp. avenae (73%), P. coronata (61%) and D. avenacea (19%) were the pathogenic fungi most frequently founded.

GÓMEZ-ESPEJO, A.L., MOLINA-GALÁN, J.D., JESÚS GARCÍA-ZAVALA, J., DEL CARMEN MENDOZA-CASTILLO, M. and DE-LA-ROSA-LOERA, A., 2015, Original and adapted populations of maize. I: Local temperate varieties × tropical varieties. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2015. Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 57–66.

Resumen: In México, few maize (Zea mays L.) breeding programs have adapted and incorporated exotic germplasm to increase the genetic base of their materials and to incorporate favorable genes. In this paper we considered grain yield as an indicator of genotypic adaptation to the central highlands of México, and it is proposed that genes for adaptation increase their frequencies by selection and are dominant over the genes that cause inability to adapt. Eight parents and 15 of their 28 F1 crosses were evaluated. From these 15 crosses, 12 were generated from the mating among one variety of Chalqueño race (original and improved versions) with three original exotic varieties and with three selected (adapted) exotic varieties of the tropical landraces Tabloncillo, Tepecintle and Comiteco; and three of the crosses resulted from the mating between the original and the selected (adapted) exotic landraces. Thus, the crosses evaluated were of three types: local original variety by original and adapted exotic varieties, improved local variety by original and adapted exotic varieties, and original exotic variety by its adapted version. Grain yield, plant height and days to male flowering were recorded. The adapted exotic populations generally surpassed their original versions in grain yield; and they also matured earlier and formed higher plants. Most contrasts for grain yield among the crosses were significant and had values in favor of the adapted exotic populations. These results support our assumption that F1 crosses have a higher frequency of favorable genes from the adapted parent, and those genes dominate over the genes from the original parent. Crosses between varieties of Chalqueño with Tepecintle landraces showed the higher heterosis, thus showing a new heterotic pattern.
HERNÁNDEZ-RAMOS, L., SANDOVAL-ISLAS, J.S., MAHUKU, G., BENÍTEZ-RIQUELME, I. and CRUZ-IZQUIERDO, S., 2015, Genetics of resistance to tar spot complex in 18 tropical maize genotypes. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2015. Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 39–47.

Resumen: Tar spot complex (TSC) of maize (Zea mays L.), caused by the fungi Phyllachora maydis Maubl, and Monographella maydis Müller & Samuels, is a disease of economic importance, as it causes severe losses in yield and forage quality. Genetic improvement of host resistance through the generation of resistant genotypes is the most efficient strategy for managing disease. Little is known about the genetic basis of maize resistance to TSC, therefore general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of 18 inbred lines S7 was determined by the Model I of fixed frequency defined by Griffing, under Method II which included 18 lines plus all its 153 possible single crosses. The experimental was laid out as a randomized complete block design and conducted in 4 different environments in the States of Veracruz, Guerrero, Puebla and Oaxaca. Both GCA and SCA were significant (P < 0.01), indicating that both additive and dominant gene effects are important in determining resistance to TSC. However, the GCA was 45 times larger than the SCA, indicating that additive gene effects are most important in TSC resistance and that different non-allelic genes may be involved in conditioning resistance to TSC in maize. It is therefore possible to pyramid or stack different resistance genes in the same background by breeding methods. The most resistant hybrids were derived from two lines with high negative GCA and SCA. The best lines to produce highly resistant hybrids were CML-329, CLRCW-105-B and [M37W/ZM607], which had the best negative GCA effects. Recurrent selection may be the most useful method of improving to accumulate and increase levels of TSC resistance in synthetic or composite populations. Dominance effects were the most important in some crosses.

JAIMEZ-RUIZ, I.A., OTERO-COLINA, G., VALDOVINOS-PONCE, G., VILLANUEVA-JIMÉNEZ, J.A. and VERA-GRAZIANO, J., 2015, Population Growth and Characterization of Plant Injuries of Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Rice. Neotropical Entomology. 2015. Vol. 44, no. 3, p. 294–300. DOI

Resumen: Rice is attacked by Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley, a mite that has dispersed throughout many countries causing important loss on rice production. Rice plants of the variety Morelos A-92 were infested with S. spinki, and its population growth was estimated along plant development. Further, the morphological and histological injuries associated to the mite attack were characterized. The highest infestation level was obtained 13 weeks after plant infestation, with an average of 58.5 mites per plant, predominantly females. Morphological injuries were categorized from level 0 (no injuries from uninfested plants) to level 3, characterized by the highest injuries represented by blotches on the adaxial epidermis of the leaf sheath and on panicles and grains. Plants ranked within levels 0, 1, and 2 for morphological injury did not exhibit clear histological injuries, while those at level 3 exhibited histological injury characterized by destruction of cells of the adaxial epidermis, disorder, color change, and hypertrophy in the mesophyll cells, as well as color change in the abaxial epidermis. Thus, it presented a significant correlation between morphological injuries and mite density level, which can be further adopted to help the control decision-making process for this mite on rice.

JIMÉNEZ-NORIEGA, M.S., TERRAZAS, T. and LÓPEZ-MATA, L., 2015, Variación morfo-anatómica de Ribes ciliatum a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal en el norte de la Sierra Nevada, México. Botanical Sciences. 2015. Vol. 93, no. 1, p. 23–32. DOI

Resumen: The species distribution along altitudinal gradients is associated with climate changes, promoting changes in the morphology and anatomy of the species. In this study, the morpho-anatomical changes of leaf and wood of Ribes ciliatum (Grossulariaceae) were evaluated along an altitudinal gradient in Tlaloc Mount, at the northern region of Sierra Nevada, State of Mexico. The samples were collected from 2,949 m up to 3,545 m elevation. Leaf and wood permanent slides were prepared to describe and quantify characters. Variance and multiple regression analyses were performed. Ribes ciliatum showed a decrease in the plant size and probably it is explained by the low temperatures, the high light intensity, and poor soils. Some leaf and wood characters showed a decrease in the site of higher elevation. However, for palisade parenchyma width, stomata density, vessel density, and number of rays, the decrement was gradual as it has been reported for other species. Multiple regressions revealed that altitude was the variable that better predicts these four variables together with canopy density, organic matter, and soil humidity. In the case of wood, the reduction on vessel density with narrower vessels and narrower width rings are considered modifications to survive under those environmental conditions allowing the plants to maintain water movement and avoid embolisms. In addition, the occurrence of paedomorphic rays at the highest elevation site is interpreted as a trait for storage. The morpho-anatomical variation found in R. ciliatum is not linear in most variables evaluated as it is reported for other species growing outside the Neotropics.

LÓPEZ-UPTON, J., VALDEZ-LAZALDE, J.R., VENTURA-RÍOS, A., VARGAS-HERNÁNDEZ, J.J. and GUERRA-DE-LA-CRUZ, V., 2015, Extinction risk of Pseudotsuga menziesii populations in the central region of Mexico: An AHP analysis. Forests. 2015. Vol. 6, no. 5, p. 1598–1612. DOI

Resumen: Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35) because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns), ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration) and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation) factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

LUNA-BAUTISTA, L., LA ROSA, P.H. De, VELÁZQUEZ-MARTÍNEZ, A., GÓMEZ-GUERRERO, A. and ACOSTA-MIRELES, M., 2015, Understory in the composition and diversity of managed forest areas in Santa Catarina Ixtepeji, Oaxaca. Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente. 2015. Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 109–121. DOI

Resumen: In the present study, the effect of silvicultural practices on richness, composition and diversity of tree species, herbaceous and shrub species in a forest community of Santa Catarina Ixtepeji, Oaxaca was evaluated. To this end, the following silvicultural treatments were evaluated: selective cutting (1998), light thinning (2011) and seed tree cutting (1998 and 2011). Alpha and beta diversity indices of tree communities (shrub and herbaceous) were estimated, and also the Importance Value index (IVI) of the tree layer. The results showed that the herbaceous component is the most diverse in both stands with and without silvicultural management, followed by the shrub component. According to the IVI, Pinus oaxacana Mirov was the most important ecological species in all treatments evaluated, including unmanaged forest. The results indicate that logging modifies richness, diversity and composition of the tree strata (shrub and herbaceous), these two tree strata are the largest contributors to diversity. Therefore it is important to assess the understory, because it helps giving a better explanation of the total plant diversity of the forest.

MARTÍNEZ-AISPURO, J.A., FIGUEROA-VELASCO, J.L., CORDERO-MORA, J.L., RUÍZ-FLORES, A., SÁNCHEZ-TORRES-ESQUEDA, M.T. and ORTEGA-CERRILLA, M.E., 2015, Effect of xylanases added to sorghum diets with different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of nursery pigs. Revista Científica de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de la Universidad del Zulia. 2015. Vol. 25, no. 2, p. 123–131.

Resumen: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of xylanase in diets based on sorghum, low in metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP), on growth performance and carcass characteristics of nursery pigs. Two experiments were conducted using York x Landrace x Duroc pigs. For experiment 1, 20 male and 20 female pigs (11.22 ± 1.36 kg initial body weight) were used, allotted in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of four levels of energy (3.350, 3.315, 3.280, and 3.245 Mcal kg-1) with or without the addition of xylanase. In experiment 2, 20 male and 20 females pigs (10.1 ± 1.8 kg initial BW) were used, allotted in a completely randomized design. Two levels of CP (18 and 20%) and two levels of ME (3.350 and 3.245 Mcal) with or without the inclusion of xylanase were evaluated. In experiment 1, addition of xylanases compensated the reduction of 105 kcal ME, and carcass characteristics were not affected by the reduction of energy level (P>0.1). In experiment 2, growth performance and carcass characteristics were not affected by the reduction of ME and CP (P>0.1). The addition of xylanase allows reduction of energy (105 kcal) and CP (2%) in diets based on sorghum for nursery pigs, maintaining the productive performance and carcass characteristics.

MORENO-CARRILLO, M.A., HERNÁNDEZ-GARAY, A., VAQUERA-HUERTA, H., TREJO-LÓPEZ, C., ESCALANTE-ESTRADA, J.A., ZARAGOZA-RAMÍREZ, J.L. and JOAQUÍN-TORRES, B.M., 2015, Forage yield of seven association and two pure swards of grasses and legumes under grazing conditions. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2015. Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 101–108. Disponible en:

Resumen: To find the best association for maximizing dry matter yield, seven associations of two grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium perenne L.) and one legume (Trifolium repens L.) were studied under grazing conditions at Texcoco, State of México. The associations of white clover (WC), orchard grass (O), and perennial ryegrass (PR) were (in %): 30:20:50 (WC:O:PR); 10:70:20 (WC:O:PR); 40:60 (WC:PR); 30:50:20 (WC:O:PR); 20:40:40 (WC:O:PR); 40:60 (WC:O); and 10:20:70 (WC:O:PR. Additionally, two pure swards with 100 (PR) and 100 (O) were included. The nine treatments were distributed in a totally random block design with four replications. The evaluated variables were dry matter yield and botanical composition. Swards were defoliated by sheep every four weeks in the Spring-Summer, and every six weeks in the Fall-Winter. The 10:20:70 (WC:O:PR) association showed the highest annual dry matter yield, 66 % more than the 10:70:20 (WC:O:PR) association and the pure orchard grass sward (P < 0.05). Among seasons, the highest seasonal dry matter yield was recorded in the Spring-Summer, and the lowest in the Fall-Winter, with 69 and 31 % of the annual herbage yield. On average, perennial ryegrass, orchard grass, and white clover accounted for 47, 21, and 13 % respectively, to total dry matter yield. Based on annual herbage yield and seasonal distribution, the best association was 10:20:70 (WC:O:PR).

NIETO, R., SÁNCHEZ-TORRES, M.T., MEJÍA, O., FIGUEROA, J.L., OLIVARES, L., PERALTA, J.G., CORDERO, J.L., MOLINA, P. and CÁRDENAS, M., 2015, Effect of fish meal and oil on hormone profile and reproductive variables in ewes inseminated by laparoscopy. Livestock Science, Vol. 178, August 2015, Pages 357–362. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2015.06.009

Resumen: The addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to the diet of ruminants can benefit the reproductive process in the female. The current study was conducted to assess the effect of a short period of feeding a diet that included fish meal and oil on the progesterone (P4) and insulin (INS) profile, and on reproductive variables including estrous onset, pregnancy and prolificacy in virgin ewes artificially inseminated by laparoscopy (AIL). Forty-two Dorset ewes were assigned into two experimental groups: These groups were no supplementation (CON; n=21) and a group supplemented with fish meal and oil (4 and 0.8%; FMO; n=21). Ewes were fed the experimental diets for 15 days, beginning four days before inserting sponges for estrus synchronization and ending the day the vaginal sponges were removed. Each ewe received 0.8 kg d−1 feed in individual pens. Ewes were pre-synchronized with prostaglandin F2α and later synchronized with chronolone sponges for 11 days. When sponges were removed, the ewes received 200 IU of eCG. The AIL began 48 h after sponge removal and estrus detection. The time of estrus onset was different among groups (P<0.05; CON: 35.1±2.1; FMO: 41.0±1.8 h). No differences were found in P4 (FMO: 3.8±1.2; CON: 3.5±1.4 ng mL−1) or INS concentrations in serum (FMO: 0.12±0.02; CON: 0.13±0.03 ng mL−1). Adding fish meal and oil to the diet did not affect pregnancy percentage (FMO: 52%; CON: 55%), but it did affect the prolificacy index (FMO: 1.63; CON: 1.25) (P<0.05). It was concluded that the addition of fish meal and oil to the diet of virgin ewes over a short period time delayed onset of estrus and enhanced prolificacy.

ORDUÑO-CRUZ, N., GUZMÁN-FRANCO, A.W., RODRÍGUEZ-LEYVA, E., ALATORRE-ROSAS, R., GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H., MORA-AGUILERA, G. and RODRÍGUEZ-MACIEL, J.C., 2015, In vitro selection of a fungal pathogen for use against Diaphorina citri. Biological Control. 2015. Vol. 90, p. 6–15. DOI

Resumen: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest of citrus, which transmits the disease Huanglongbing (HLB) and has had devastating effects on the citrus industry around the world. Control relies mainly on synthetic pesticides, but biological control using entomopathogenic fungi may provide an alternative strategy. We evaluated sixteen fungal isolates in total; three of Beauveria bassiana, two of Metarhizium anisopliae, three of Isaria fumosorosea (Group 1); and eight isolates of Hirsutella citriformis (Group 2). The in vitro growth, germination (after different incubation times) and sporulation were assessed for all isolates at four temperatures: 20, 25, 30 and 35. °C. Overall, the Group 1 isolates achieved the greatest growth, germination rate and sporulation compared with the H. citriformis isolates In Group 2. Among the Group 1 isolates, B1, M2 and I1 had the greatest performance in the biological attributes evaluated. Group 2 isolates were not competitive under in vitro assessment; however, they cannot be dismissed entirely until in vivo experiments are done as this species was the most common pathogen infecting ACP in the field.

ORDUÑO-CRUZ, N., GUZMÁN-FRANCO, A.W., RODRÍGUEZ-LEYVA, E., ALATORRE-ROSAS, R., GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, H. and MORA-AGUILERA, G., 2015, In vivo selection of entomopathogenic fungal isolates for control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Biological Control. 2015. Vol. 90, p. 1–5. DOI

Resumen: The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is an important pest of citrus, which transmits the disease Huanglongbing with devastating effects on the citrus industry around the world. Control relies mainly on synthetic pesticides, but biological control using entomopathogenic fungi may provide an alternative strategy. Based on previous in vitro experiments, we selected four isolates, one from each of the species Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosorosea and Hirstella citriformis. With these isolates, we carried out in vivo experiments to select an isolate based on its infection ability against adult D. citri. Using only H. citriformis isolates, we evaluated the mortality in D. citri achieved using blastospores. As a potential cause of the low mortality achieved with H. citriformis, we evaluated the effect of inoculum carrier (Tween 80 or distilled water) on conidial germination. We also compared the pathogenicity of dry conidia (not suspended in 0.03% Tween 80) of H. citriformis and M. anisopliae against adult D. citri. Using conidial suspensions, all isolates caused mortalities above 80% in adult D. citri cohorts, except H. citriformis, which caused a maximum of 40% mortality. The mortality caused by blastospore suspensions of H. citriformis, were 60%. Tween 80 solution and distilled water significantly reduced the germination of H. citriformis conidia. Dry conidia of H. citriformis and M. anisopliae caused 100% mortality. Our results suggest that using a combination of biological control approaches, both inundative (using M. anisopliae or I. fumosorosea isolates in suspension) and inoculative (using H. citriformis as dry conidia in autoinoculation devices), has good biological control potential. The suitability of the combined use of these two biological control approaches for management of D. citri is discussed.

PABLO-PÉREZ, M., LAGUNES-ESPINOZA, L.C., LÓPEZ-UPTON, J., ARANDA-IBÁÑEZ, E.M. and RAMOS-JUÁREZ, J., 2015, Chemical composition of wild species of the genus Lupinus from state of Puebla, México. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2015. Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 49–55. Disponible en:

Resumen: Species of the genus Lupinus are abundant in the Mexican Transverse Neovolcanic Axis and their seeds have high protein content that can be utilized in human and animal nutrition. Flowering and fruiting plants of Lupinus campestris, L. exaltatus, L. hintonii and L. montanus were collected in the Serdan and Libres Valley state of Puebla, México, during May and August 2011 at 2486 - 3442 masl, for proximate analysis, total alkaloids (TA), total polyphenols (TP) and condensed tannins (CT) in various plant organs. The seeds had the highest percentage of crude protein (CP) (32.5 to 43.5 g/100 g), ether extract (EE) (6.5 to 7.5 g/100 g), and the lowest content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (16.7 to 24.7 g/100 g) and acid detergent fiber (FDA) (4.4 to 7.9 g/100 g), compared to the leaves + stems (PC: 22.2 to 25.5 g/100 g; FDN: 38.2 to 44.1 g/100 g; FDA: 21.7 to 30.1 g/100 g). In pod walls lower PC content (10.9 to 22.8 g/100 g) and EE (0.1 to 0.6 g/100 g), but higher NDF (54.4 to 68.4 g/100 g) and FDA (34.0 to 47.1 g/100 g) were observed. In the seeds TA were from 2.4 to 5.4 g/100 g (L. hintonii with the highest content), PT of 221 to 554 mg/100 g, and CT from 0.0 to 22.7 mg kg-1 (L. exaltatus and L. campestris seeds without tannins). In the foliage, TA ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 g/100 g, PT from 556 to 813 mg/100 g and CT of 66.85 to 99.71 mg kg-1. The seeds and foliage of wild Lupinus species are a source of protein and polyphenols. These will require reducing level of alkaloids via technological processes or breeding varieties suitable for use in food.

TURCIOS PALOMO, L.A., BAUTISTA MARTÍNEZ, N., JOHANSEN-NAIME, R., ROMERO NAPOLES, J., SEGURA LEON, O., SANCHEZ ARROYO, H. and VERA GRAZIANO, J., 2015, Population Fluctuations of Thrips (Thysanoptera) and Their Relationship to the Phenology of Vegetable Crops in the Central Region of Mexico. Florida Entomologist. 2015. Vol. 98, no. 2, p. 430–438. DOI

Resumen: The presence of thrips in vegetable crops has become an important phytosanitary issue in Mexico. Their direct injuries to plants are the result of the feeding by their immature and adult stages, whereas their indirect injuries are caused by the transmission of various viruses. The objective of this study was to identify the species of thrips associated with 6 vegetable crops in order to determine their population fluctuations and to ascertain the effects of temperature and rainfall on their populations. Samples were collected from zucchini, onion, pepper, cucumber, tomato, and tomatillo in Puebla and Morelos from Feb 2010 to Feb 2011. Three species were identified: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on all vegetables, Frankliniella fortissima (Priesner) on zucchini and cucumber, and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and pepper. The highest population level for thrips coincided with the presence of flowers on the crops, except in the case of onion. In general, 2 to 6 generations of thrips were present in each crop cycle, and the levels of populations decreased when the plants were near senescence. The main suppressive effect of weather on thrips populations was caused by rainfall.

PÉREZ-GONZÁLEZ, S.B., REYES-OLIVAS, Á., GARCÍA-MOYA, E., ROMERO-MANZANARES, A., GARCÍA-NAVA, J.R., LUGO-GARCÍA, G.A. and SÁNCHEZ-SOTO, B., 2015, Seed storage and germination of Stenocereus thurberi, a cactaceae with facultative viviparity. Botanical Sciences. 2015. Vol. 93, no. 2, p. 105–108. DOI:

Resumen: The strategy of germination is central to ensure survivorship of natural populations. Storage and viability of seeds are also important features in regeneration and cropping. Both aspects of viviparous arborescent cacti of Sonoran Desert are lacking. This research focused on the germination of Stenocereus thurberi in viviparous and non-viviparous plants. Also, the effect of storage in the remaining seeds of fruits having viviparous seeds as compared with the behavior of seeds of non-viviparous plants. The response in the initiation (Ti), mean initiation time (T50), and the germinative potential (GP) of seeds were analyzed with a randomized block design, four replicates in candy boxes with 50 seeds as experimental units. The results confirmed a greater velocity of germination and high tolerance to storage in seeds of fruits having viviparous seeds. Meanwhile they showed variation in the reduction of percentage of germination as compared with seeds from fruits on non-viviparous plants. The precocity of germination combined with the high tolerance to drying are outstanding and rare traits in Plant Kingdom, which favors seedlings establishment due to gain vigor before the initiation of dispersal.

SÁNCHEZ-LÓPEZ, A.S., CARRILLO-GONZÁLEZ, R., GONZÁLEZ-CHÁVEZ, M.D.C.A., ROSAS-SAITO, G.H. and VANGRONSVELD, J., 2015, Phytobarriers: Plants capture particles containing potentially toxic elements originating from mine tailings in semiarid regions. Environmental Pollution. 2015. Vol. 205, p. 33–42.

Resumen: Retention of particles containing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) on plants that spontaneously colonize mine tailings was studied through comparison of washed and unwashed shoot samples. Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn concentrations were determined in plant samples. Particles retained on leaves were examined by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis. Particles containing PTEs were detected on both washed and unwashed leaves. This indicates that the thorough washing procedure did not remove all the particles containing PTEs from the leaf surface, leading to an overestimation of the concentrations of PTEs in plant tissues. Particularly trichomes and fungal mycelium were retaining particles. The quantity and composition of particles varied among plant species and place of collection. It is obvious that plants growing on toxic mine tailings form a physical barrier against particle dispersion and hence limit the spread of PTEs by wind.

TAMAYO-MEJÍA, F., TAMEZ-GUERRA, P., GUZMÁN-FRANCO, A.W. and GOMEZ-FLORES, R., 2015, Can Beauveria bassiana Bals. (Vuill) (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) and Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) be used together for improved biological control of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)? Biological Control. 2015. Vol. 90, p. 42–48. DOI

Resumen: Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) is an important pest of solanaceous crops and a vector of the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous. Biocontrol of this pest has been attempted with either entomopathogenic fungi or the parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks), but prior to this study, their potential impact in combination had not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate T. triozae parasitism rates on B. cockerelli nymphs that were previously infected for different periods of time by three isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Two native isolates (BB40 and BB42) and one commercial isolate (GHA) were used. The virulence of these isolates was first estimated against B. cockerelli and T. triozae. LC50 values for the native isolates BB40 and BB42 against B. cockerelli were 9.5 × 105 and 2.42 × 106 conidia mL−1 respectively; they were significantly more virulent than isolate GHA with an LC50 of 1.97 × 107 conidia mL−1. However, isolate GHA was significantly more virulent against T. triozae with an LC50 of 1.11 × 107 conidia mL−1 compared with LC50s of 1.49 × 107 and 1.14 × 108 conidia mL−1 for the native isolates BB40 and BB42 respectively. Groups of nymphs were then inoculated with LC20, LC50 or LC90 concentrations of each isolate and presented to T. triozae as hosts either on the day of inoculation or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 days after inoculation. Subsequent levels of parasitism were recorded. Overall, parasitism rates were similar in inoculated and control nymphs. No parasitism occurred in nymphs 6 days after fungal inoculation. Parasitoids used to parasitize uninoculated B. cockerelli nymphs survived significantly longer (7.8 days) than parasitoids that had been used to parasitize fungus-inoculated nymphs (7.3 days). This suggests an inability of the parasitoid to avoid infection when foraging on inoculated nymphs. In conclusion, although the parasitism rate in control and fungus-treated nymphs was similar, suggesting a combination of both biological control agents is possible, we believe there are also negative implications for the parasitoid because its survival was greatly reduced after attacking infected nymphs.

TORRES-GARCÍA, J.R., NÚÑEZ-FARFÁN, J., USCANGA-MORTERA, E., TREJO, C., CONDE-MARTÍNEZ, V., KOHASHI-SHIBATA, J., MARTÍNEZ-MORENO, D. and VELAZQUÉZ-MARQUEZ, S., 2015, Competition for canopy cover between accessions of Phalaris minor that are susceptible and resistant to ACCase inhibiting herbicides. Nordic Journal of Botany, Artículo publicado primero en  línea: 10 JUN 2015. ISSN 1756-1051. DOI: 10.1111/njb.00764.

Resumen: Herbicide resistance has the potential to impose fitness costs in plants. In Mexico, Phalaris minor Retz. has evolved resistance to acetyl-coa carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides. However, it is unknown whether these changes may involve other ecological costs for resistant individuals under non-selective conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the evolution of resistance has reduced the ability of P. minor to compete for resources at the seedling stage. De Wit’s replacement series experiments (susceptible: resistant 100:0, 50:50, 0:100) were performed under two initial conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the effect of differences in germination time between resistant and susceptible genotypes on canopy cover. In the second experiment, germination was synchronized, and all the replacement series began at the same time. Delayed germination of resistant accessions reduced their ability to compete for canopy space, competition intensity index, and relative productivity in relation to susceptible accessions. When germination was synchronized, the resistant accessions had the same canopy cover and productivity as susceptible accessions. The delayed germination may cause displacement of resistant individuals in the absence of the selective factor (herbicide).

VARGAS-RODRÍGUEZ, L.M., HERRERA, J.G., MORALES, E.J., ARCOS-GARCÍA, J.L., LÓPEZ-POZOS, R. and RUELAS, G., 2015, Effect of citric acid, phytase and calcium in diets of laying hens on productive performance, digestibility and mineral excretion. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2015. Vol. 14, no. 4, p. 222–228. PDF:

Resumen: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of citric acid (CA), phytase and calcium in diets of laying hens on the productive performances and digestibility and excretion of phosphorus (P), calcium and nitrogen (N). An experiment was designed using 24 week old laying hens, which were fed a diet with a base of sorghum and soybean meal containing 2,700 kcal ME/kg, 15% crude protein, 3.25% calcium and 0.25% available phosphorus. The following were also added to the diets of hens depending on the treatment groups: 0.0, 0.6 and 1.2% citric acid, 0.0 and 300 units of phytase/kg of diet (FTU) and 3.00 and 3.25% calcium. The phytase was added as an ingredient into to diets, contributed to 0.1% of phosphorus and 0.3% of calcium levels. The experiment involved 12 treatments in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design. The treatment 0.6% citric acid, 300 FTU and 3% calcium increased the digestibility of phosphorus, resulting in its decreased excretion (p<0.05). Citric acid decreased the excretion of calcium and N linearly (p<0.01), increased (p<0.05) their digestibility and had effect on the response of the phytase (p<0.05). The treatment of 1.2% citric acid, 300 FTU and 3.25% calcium increased (p<0.05) the digestibility of N quantitativaly. It can be concluded that citric acid reduces the excretion levels and increases the digestibility of P, N and calcium and has effect on the response of the phytase to affect the excretions of P and N.

VAZQUEZ, A.I., KLIMENTIDIS, Y.C., DHURANDHAR, E.J., VETURI, Y.C. and PÉREZ-RODRÍGUEZ, P., 2015, Assessment of whole-genome regression for type II diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2015. Vol. 10, no. 4. DOI:

Resumen: Lifestyle and genetic factors play a large role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Despite the important role of genetic factors, genetic information is not incorporated into the clinical assessment of T2D risk. We assessed and compared Whole Genome Regression methods to predict the T2D status of 5,245 subjects from the Framingham Heart Study. For evaluating each method we constructed the following set of regression models: A clinical baseline model (CBM) which included non-genetic covariates only. CBM was extended by adding the first two marker-derived principal components and 65 SNPs identified by a recent GWAS consortium for T2D (M-65SNPs). Subsequently, it was further extended by adding 249,798 genome-wide SNPs from a high-density array. The Bayesian models used to incorporate genome-wide marker information as predictors were: Bayes A, Bayes CΠ, Bayesian LASSO (BL), and the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (G-BLUP). Results included estimates of the genetic variance and heritability, genetic scores for T2D, and predictive ability evaluated in a 10-fold cross-validation. The predictive AUC estimates for CBM and M-65SNPs were: 0.668 and 0.684, respectively. We found evidence of contribution of genetic effects in T2D, as reflected in the genomic heritability estimates (0.492±0.066). The highest predictive AUC among the genome-wide marker Bayesian models was 0.681 for the Bayesian LASSO. Overall, the improvement in predictive ability was moderate and did not differ greatly among models that included genetic information. Approximately 58% of the total number of genetic variants was found to contribute to the overall genetic variation, indicating a complex genetic architecture for T2D. Our results suggest that the Bayes CΠ and the G-BLUP models with a large set of genome-wide markers could be used for predicting risk to T2D, as an alternative to using high-density arrays when selected markers from large consortiums for a given complex trait or disease are unavailable.

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